What is Rna: Definition and 55 Discussions

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes. RNA and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are nucleic acids. Along with lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, nucleic acids constitute one of the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA, RNA is found in nature as a single strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double strand. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases of guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins. Many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome.
Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. One of these active processes is protein synthesis, a universal function in which RNA molecules direct the synthesis of proteins on ribosomes. This process uses transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) then links amino acids together to form coded proteins.

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  1. samy4408

    A question about nucleic acids

    Hello , is minor bases and Nucleoside the same thing ?
  2. T

    RNA Evolves to an Ecosystem of Hosts & Parasites

    It takes awhile though! ... Popular article: https://www.quantamagazine.org/in-test-tubes-rna-molecules-evolve-into-a-tiny-ecosystem-20220505/ Technical report: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-022-29113-x Looks like we are starting to understand 'Life' and 'Evolution'. Cheers, Tom
  3. mktsgm

    Medical What determines the long-term effectiveness of a viral vaccine?

    It is well known that RNA viruses mutate very quickly. Hence, it is said that it is very hard to develop an effective vaccine against it. With HIV and influenza RNA viruses the scientific world is still facing difficulty in developing effective long-term vaccines against them. Most influenza...
  4. JonMoulton

    "Can Oligonucleotides Target RNA Splicing to Treat Disease?" from OTS

    From the Oligonucleotide Therapeutics Society: "Can Oligonucleotides Target RNA Splicing to Treat Disease?" https://www.oligotherapeutics.org/can-oligonucleotides-target-rna-splicing-to-treat-disease/
  5. Astronuc

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) - not just for Coronavirus vaccines

    https://www.technologyreview.com/2021/02/05/1017366/messenger-rna-vaccines-covid-hiv/ I would expect Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman to be awarded the Noble Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The technology may be applied to other viruses.
  6. P

    RNA coding sequence for proteins

    Simplistic Example Given - DNA - RNA AATGTA codes for a protein. 1. Does the inverse ATGTAA usually/ever code for a protein? 2. Does the reciprocal RNA TTACAT usually/ever code for a protein?
  7. H

    Biology How Does the CTD of RNA Polymerase in Eukaryotes Affect Transcription?

    How can A, B, and C choices do with the CTD?
  8. Ygggdrasil

    Celebrating RNA Day: Exploring Exciting Areas of RNA Research

    Today (AUG 1) is RNA Day, an international celebration of one of the most versatile biomolecules in existence. This year, in particular, we are reminded of the importance of RNA biology as a pandemic caused by an RNA virus has disrupted life worldwide. What are some areas of RNA research that...
  9. Ygggdrasil

    Researchers double the size of the DNA alphabet

    Published this week in the journal Science, researchers report that they have devised a eight letter alphabet for DNA and RNA: The work builds off of previous work, which had expanded the genetic alphabet to six letters. The researchers call their eight-lettered nucleic acids "hachimoji,"...
  10. Ygggdrasil

    Celebrating RNA Day: Exploring the Diverse Roles of RNAs in Gene Expression

    Today (AUG 1) is RNA Day, an international celebration of one of the most versatile biomolecules in existence. What are some areas of RNA research that excite you most? Some of the most intriguing areas of current research to me (with example links for further reading): The role of RNAs in...
  11. cliffhanley203

    Could RNA have been around pre-biotically?

    Homework Statement I’m reading my way through the Brittanic.com article on abiogenesis and I have a question regards the following line taken from the article;[/B] “...a single RNA catalyst could have produced mulitiple living forms...” Q. Is this implying that RNA could have existed...
  12. S

    Biology Genetics: Understanding the Base Sequence of Messenger RNA

    Homework Statement [/B] I am reviewing an example on the basics of the genetic code; this example is listed at the bottom of the following webpage: https://www.atdbio.com/content/14/Transcription-Translation-and-Replication.I have produced the example below and added Roman numbers to better...
  13. Greg Bernhardt

    Life’s First Molecule Was Protein, Not RNA

  14. BillTre

    Medical Company Developing RNA for General Drug Use

    Moderna Therapeutics has apparently been working on developing RNA for drug uses with a minimum of publicity, publishing mostly just patents and getting a lot of investment capital. Their goal is to make injectable RNAs that will be translated into specific proteins. This approach could be...
  15. JonMoulton

    Morpholino antisense drug approval (US FDA): eteplirsen

    A Morpholino antisense drug has been approved by the US FDA. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm521263.htm This drug binds to complementary RNA to change biology, in this case altering the splicing of the protein that, when mutated, can cause Duchenne muscular...
  16. mfb

    Amplification of RNA by an RNA polymerase ribozyme

    I stumbled upon this publication (News at phys.org). As far as I understand, it is a big step towards replicating RNA systems. They found an RNA enzyme that can synthesize longer RNA molecules, and fully replicate shorter RNA molecules - completely without proteins. It cannot replicate itself...
  17. Docscientist

    Can RNA Interference Pathway Help Fight Cancer Gene?

    How exactly does RNAi help in fighting against cancer gene ?
  18. TheExibo

    Why are Promoters Located on the 5' End if RNA Polymerase Moves from 3' to 5'?

    If RNA polymerase moves from the 3' to 5' end of the template strand to synthesize an mRNA strand from the 5' to 3' end (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22085/), how come promoters are located on the 5' end (said in my Biology class)? It was also mentioned that while RNA polymerase moves...
  19. I

    What happens to a protein built from mutated RNA?

    I was wondering if anyone knew what happens to a protein that gets wrongly assembled due to a mutated RNA? Does it just do a slightly different or very destructive action in the organism, or does the organism catch it and kick it out? Also an extra side question: Speaking of mutations of RNA...
  20. R

    Biology Point mutation, change in rna and protein

    Homework Statement UV Rays is said to induce point mutations which get incorporated during the DNA replication process. These mutations are corrected by the excision repair mechanism of the DNA polymerase but sometimes they might be left out. In one of such cases, point insertions were...
  21. V

    Genetic Code: Val-tRNA Val - Anticodon Selection

    Homework Statement Val-tRNA val is the tRNA that carries valine to the ribosome during translation. Which of the following sequences gives an appropriate anticodon for this tRNA? A. CAU B. AUC C. UAC D. GUG Homework Equations There are four different codons for Valine: GUU, GUC, GUA, and...
  22. J

    What are some recommended books on RNA and Graph Theory?

    Hey, I'm looking for any books that contain anything on RNA and Graph Theory, was hoping if anyone has any recommendations or can at least point me in the right direction. I've already read through the section on this topic in Goodaire and Parmenter's 'Discrete Mathematics with Graph Theory'...
  23. A

    RNA Primers = Part of Okazaki fragments?

    Hi, I have a simple semantics question. I have been reading some literature that seems to consider RNA Primers as part of Okazaki fragments, but this should not be so because Okazaki Fragments by definition are just the DNA portions synthesized on the lagging strand. Any...
  24. U

    RNA destroyed, and areas of no color showed

    1. The problem in attachments Homework Equations 3. RNA destroyed means no proteins (enzymes) formed, however if some areas showed no color, does that mean other areas did? I'm pretty sure the answer is D but making sure
  25. H

    Are ribosomes complexes of protein and RNA?

    Hi, The question is the same as the title : Are ribosomes complexes of protein and RNA? I read that in a book and though I have no idea what ribosomes are made of I thought it did'nt make sense that they are complexes of protein and DNA. Help?
  26. S

    Which was the origin, DNA, RNA or Protein?

    Hello! I'm looking for information, articles and theories about which could have been the original molecule of life: DNA, RNA or protein. Most of what I've found is based on the RNA world theory (which I think is pretty well explained and sounds plausible), but I haven't found out any...
  27. A

    Slow Pace of RNA RESEARCH WHY?

    Slow Pace of RNA RESEARCH WHY? I was talking to a grad student in my lab the other day and we couldn't agree on why it take so long to discover gene regulation by RNA processing? I mean we knew about DNA and RNA decades ago why did it take so long to figure out that they can be regulated...
  28. D

    Compare the structure of RNA and DNA with respect to the following characteristics.

    Homework Statement 3) Compare the structure of RNA and DNA with respect to the following characteristics. Length Function Molecular components Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I know nothing about the length, Function: RNA reads the info in DNA and transports...
  29. N

    Nanotechnology and RNA to Protein

    Hello! I'm guessing nanotechnology poses many difficulties, especially when using synthetic materials to manufacture complicated machines on such a small scale. I was thinking, therefore, that, if the mechanisms of protein folding are figured out, then mRNA sequences can be designed to...
  30. N

    Calculation of RNA transcription rate

    Hi all, I have been reading some papers where they talk about RNA transcription rates in operons namely lac and unc. Can anyone tell me how does one go about in calculation of these rates? Thanks, Nancy
  31. G

    RNA Polymerase: Formation, Functions, Characteristics

    Homework Statement An enzyme called "RNA polymerase" catalyzes the formation of messenger RNAs. Therefore, we know that each RNA polymerase molecule: Homework Equations a.could be classified as a nucleic acid. b.can participate in mRNA formation multiple times. c.is found only in...
  32. A

    How does rna polymerase read dna ?

    How does rna polymerase "read" dna ?? How does RNA polymerase "read" DNA? What i mean is ,after all,the polymerase is just a molecular complex,not an intelligent organism?how does it "know" that it has to combine 'A' to 'U' and 'G' to'C'. What is the exact mechanism involved??
  33. Ahmed Abdullah

    Why dna polymerase require a primer but rna polymerase don't?

    I asked this question in some other place but they had simply said that .. the DNA polymerase don't have the ability to start DNA polymerization but I already know that and it doesn't answer my question. RNA is not much different from DNA (virtually same as far as polymerization reaction is...
  34. C

    Possible Replication Mechanisms for Phage RNA in Offspring

    Homework Statement Consider the genome of an RNA phage where only one strand of RNA is packaged into the phage. How can this phage produce many offspring that all have the same strand of RNA? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution mitosis?
  35. M

    Question regarding RNA Translation

    Homework Statement Dear All, I have a question regarding RNA translation. Firstly, my book states that Amino-Acids are binded to tRNA through AA-Activation which is possible through ATP->AMP. The AA will then bind to the acceptor stem near 3' end. My question is: a) Each strand of...
  36. R

    Which chemical process causes RNA or DNA replication?

    hi, DNA and RNA seem to be very peculiar molecular structures that are able to replicate themselves, and they are unique regarding this point, right?. But which chemical "magical" phenomena is responsible for this ability to reproduce?
  37. P

    Why Are Some mRNA Transcripts Bigger Than Others?

    Homework Statement After isolating the same mRNA transcripts of the same gene, why are some transcripts bigger than others? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution
  38. D

    Running DNA and RNA through agarose gel electrophoresis

    Homework Statement How would you predict for samples of ssDNA and ssRNA (1kb long each) would run on agarose gel electrophoresis? Explain. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution From what i learned, RNA would run faster then DNA since RNA is more compact. Although what...
  39. E

    Important Question about RNA processing

    I had a question about how the RNA processing occurs. I know that the RNA is transcribed off the DNA, and then the introns are removed(sometimes in different orders), and then the capping occurs. My question is whether or not different segments of RNA can fuse together before during the...
  40. W

    Which DNA and RNA bases contain a carbonyl group?W

    which DNA and RNA bases contain a carbonyl group? Which DNA and RNA bases are primary amines? Thanks for any help
  41. J

    Why does RNA Polymerase always move toward the 5' end of the

    DNA strand (template strand) it is transcribing? Why couldn't it move toward the 3' end? Please explain with as much clarification as possible. I understand the 5' end is the phosphate group end of a nucleotide, and 3' end is the hydroxyl (-OH) end. I also know that nucleotides are only added...
  42. C

    How Does RNA Copy DNA Strands?

    How does RNA "know" which DNA strand is the template strand?
  43. F

    Help RNA purification and cetrifuge time

    I've been purifying RNA for RT-PCR cloning. I have been using the same type of kit (Promega Total RNA Kit). My 260/280 ratio has been between 1.9-2.1, which is good. However I just ran a new set of samples and the ratio is down to 1.7 which isn't so great. This might mean I have a lot of DNA...
  44. B

    RNA Interference & SIR2 & SCH9 Genes

    Can RNA interference be used to stop the expression of SIR2 and SCH9 genes? Is it unknown whether or not it can? never mind about the 3rd question found out the only difference was whether or not the change is inherited
  45. E

    Ribosomes, RNA and pseudoknots

    The article Danish researchers solve virus puzzle here describes how physicists and biologists work together to examine how viruses are produced by a cell. As far as I understand, every human cell has RNA which contains the 'recipe' on how to build proteins. The human cell also contains...
  46. E

    Quantum mechanics and DNA and RNA

    Since nucleotides are molecules, how does quantum mechanics pertain to DNA and RNA? I have heard there is the study of stability of the DNA and RNA molecules, for instance. What does DNA and RNA actually look like -- as opposed to textbook drawings which illustrate spherical balls attached to a...
  47. Loren Booda

    DNA and RNA symmetries per the origin(s) of life

    Does the single-handedness of DNA and RNA indicate that life originated few times, if more than once? What might the sameness between early sequences (in bacteria, say) indicate in this regard?
  48. K

    Uracil in RNA instead of thymine and why not in DNA?

    Why there is uracil in RNA instead of thymine and why not in DNA? Thanks.
  49. M

    Is Your RNA Concentration Measurement Accurate? Tips for Better Results

    Do you have any good protocols for measuring the concentration of RNA? The ones i have they seem to be very confused. Thanks.
  50. D

    Unravelling the Mystery of DNA, RNA and Proteins

    Are the whole processes of DNA, RNA, ribosomes, amino acids and proteins all just "chemical reactions" or is there something more to it? I know the way it works from DNA to protein but why? I understand this question might have a very complex anwser but a brief explanation would be...