What is High temperature: Definition and 79 Discussions

High-temperature superconductors (abbreviated high-Tc or HTS) are operatively defined as materials that behave as superconductors at temperatures above 77 K (−196.2 °C; −321.1 °F), the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, one of the simplest coolants in cryogenics.
All materials currently known to conduct at ordinary pressures become superconducting at temperatures far below ambient, and therefore require cooling. The majority of high-temperature superconductors are ceramic materials. On the other hand, Metallic superconductors usually work below −200 °C: they are then called low-temperature superconductors. Metallic superconductors are also ordinary superconductors, since they were discovered and used before the high-temperature ones.
Ceramic superconductors are now becoming suitable for some practical use, but they still have many manufacturing issues and there are very few successful practical examples of employment.
Most ceramics are brittle which makes the fabrication of wires from them very problematic.The major advantage of high-temperature ceramic superconductors is that they can be cooled by using liquid nitrogen.
On the other hand, metallic superconductors usually require more difficult coolants - mostly liquid helium. Unfortunately, none of high-temperature superconductors are coolable using only dry ice, and none of them work at room temperature and pressure (they work well below the lowest temperature recorded on Earth). All high-temperature superconductors require some type of cooling system.
The main class of high-temperature superconductors are in the class of copper oxides (only some particular copper oxides).
The second class of high-temperature superconductors in the practical classification is the class of iron-based compounds.Magnesium diboride is sometimes included in high-temperature superconductors: It is relatively simple to manufacture, but it superconducts only below −230 °C, which makes it unsuitable for liquid nitrogen cooling (approximately 30 °C below nitrogen triple point temperature). For example, it can be cooled with liquid helium, which works at much lower temperatures.
Many ceramic superconductors physically behave as superconductors of the second type.
The first high-temperature superconductor was discovered in 1986, by IBM researchers Bednorz and Müller, who were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1987 "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials".Some extremely-high pressure superhydride compounds are usually categorized as high-temperature superconductors. In fact, many articles on high-temperature superconductors can be found on this research on high pressure gases, which is not suitable for practical applications. The current Tc record holder is carbonaceous sulfur hydride, beating the previous record held by lanthanum decahydride by nearly 30 °C.

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  1. E

    Details regarding the high temperature limit of the partition function

    My main question here is about how we actually justify, hopefully fairly rigorously, the steps leading towards converting the sum to an integral. My work is below: If we consider the canonical ensemble then, after tracing over the corresponding exponential we get: $$Z = \sum_{n=0}^\infty...
  2. S

    B High Temperature in Gravitational Fields: Exploring the Possibility?

    Sir, heat is proportional to the vibration of atoms. If the vibration of atom is restricted to large extent due to intense gravitational field but has high quantity of total energy in the atom then does it mean it has high tempearture like the stars?
  3. Astronuc

    High Temperature and Very High Temperature Materials

    A family member shared an article about thermovoltaics being developed at MIT with support from National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). A new heat engine with no moving parts is as efficient as a steam turbine https://news.mit.edu/2022/thermal-heat-engine-0413 The article mentions that the...
  4. xpell

    Could a high / very high temperature nuclear reactor operate in Venus?

    Hi. I'm just a curious person with high-school-level scientific knowledge. However, I was wondering if a specially-engineered Generation IV high or very high temperature (800-1,000ºC) nuclear reactor could work in Venus using the local atmosphere at 450ºC as "coolant", just like a "typical"...
  5. O

    Emissivity of a very high temperature object

    I am looking for data on the total hemispherical emissivitie from a Platinum surface at high temperature 1400 - 2000 K. In this temperature range the Platnium surface will color from red, orange to white. I learned that, practically, the bove mentioned emissivity will approach to one in this...
  6. M

    High temperature (~950 C) heating blanket

    Hi, I need to heat up a flat surface in a controlled way from room temperature to approximately 950 C. The surface will be some square meters large. Is there any way doing this without combustion, that is using a electric heating blanket? Does anyone know if such blankets exist? (Have already...
  7. pangru

    Physics Career in cuprate high temperature superconductor physics

    Hello, I am interested in physics of cuprate high temperature superconductors (Cuprate_SC) However, I heard that it is "out-of-dated" topic in solid state physics and almost impossible to find group/foundation to do research in this field. I am doing PhD right now and I consider moving...
  8. T

    Fuel/oxidizer preheating to a high temperature

    imagine you burn something, like H2 in O2. let's say you have a nice flame with a temperature T. for the sake of this discussion let's assume that T is 1000. what happens if you preheat both H2 and O2 to 1000 first? is the resulting flame temperature higher? does the flame look the same? what...
  9. Q

    High temperature electrical insolator that repels carbon deposits

    Is there any material/s that will handle CVI furnace temperatures (1250 C) and will either repel carbon deposits or react with it to create a compound that is not electric conductive? Trying to contain power to the heating element without shorting it to the base/ground through heating element...
  10. Sebastiaan

    Nitrogen Oxidizing properties at high temperature

    DiNitrogen is very unreactive due to the tripple bond it has, but what happens if it heated to very high temperature and bonds are broken? does it start behaving as a strong oxidiser. I could not find iinformation on at which temperature this happens but let's assume 3500K in a Tunston reactor...
  11. D

    High Temperature, Non-conductive Material

    Does anyone know of any material that's not as brittle as ceramic that can withstand high temperatures and is non-conductive? I'm talking abou a max temp of 800degC of heat radiating from a hot steel coil. Components will be inside of the coil for a short period of time but trying to prepare...
  12. M

    Maintaining Magnetism at High Temperature

    The only way for me to move 1200 degree steel is with a magnet. The magnet loses its magnetism at 800 degrees, though, causing some pieces to fall and potentially injure people. Is there a way to electrically boost the magnetism of an existing magnet, apply an additional field to the magnet...
  13. CFurner

    Torsional strength at high temperature

    High school student here I am designing an experiment to test the effect of temperature on the torque required to twist a piece of metal, and need some advice on where to start researching. What I need help with is A) finding a table of the torque required to twist steel when cold, and B)...
  14. yangshi

    Can I Measure Total Pressure with a Thin Pipe Instead of a Pitot Tube?

    Since pitot tubes measure total pressure from the flow ramming into the total pressure hole, could I use any thin piece of pipe facing the flow (given that it's smooth on the inside) to measure total pressure? Trying to think of ways not to use my pitot tube to measure the total pressure of a...
  15. gonadas91

    High temperature Superconductors: Cuprates

    Hi everyone, I am about to finish my PhD and need to start thinking about trying to move somewhere else. One line of research that caughts my attention is that of the cuprates, and the study of their phase diagram. I would like to know if someone can suggest a very recent book or review article...
  16. A

    High temperature and friction

    if i heat up my drill bit before drilling, will that result in less coefficient of friction between the drill bit and wood material or metal material? and if so yes will it give me more time before the drill bit wears out because of high temperature as it will be harder to reach high temperature...
  17. Magnetic Boy

    Bosons at very high temperature

    Will all particles be in excited state in boson condensate if temperature approach infinity?
  18. P

    Fermi Function at High Temperature

    Hello, A question I can't seem to find a simple answer to is, what happens to the Fermi-Dirac distribution at T grows large? Mathematics suggests that it approaches 1/2, like it does when the energy becomes equal to the Fermi energy. Or, are we not allowed to use the F-D distribution for high...
  19. MaxKang

    I Can you have a high temperature with very little heat?

    From what I know, temperature is defined to be the average kinetic energy of molecules within a system while heat is said to be the total kinetic energy of molecules. I know this might be something we can never achieve in real life but here's how my thought process went. Imagine you have a box...
  20. P

    Density computation for high temperature, low pressure argon

    I am trying to compute the density of argon given the following conditions: T = 7000 K P = 21331 Pa For typical gases, I do not believe the ideal gas law would hold for such a high temp&low pressure regime, but since Argon is largely non-reactive, do you guys think using the ideal gas law would...
  21. domainwhale

    Insights High Temperature Low Temperature Duality for the Ising Model on an Infinite Regular Tree - Comments

    domainwhale submitted a new PF Insights post High Temperature Low Temperature Duality for the Ising Model on an Infinite Regular Tree Continue reading the Original PF Insights Post.
  22. L

    Need ideas for high temperature sealed container.

    For my bachelor project, I am in need of an air tight (or very, very near air tight) container, which can withstand 750 C. My original thought was to have a steel container with a lid and gasket, but I was unable to find any gaskets that got anywhere near that. Does anyone know of a gasket...
  23. randini

    High temperature insulating material for new engine concept

    In the past, reciprocating engine platforms have prevented the use of thermal insulating materials like ceramics due to, among other reasons, abrasion and vibration. One of the problems in the past has been the movement of the piston and piston rings over the cylinder wall where the insulating...
  24. B

    High Temperature electrochemical measurements

    Hi all, I'm interested in high temperature sample holders of electrochemical measurements especially for Li-ion batteries. But I couldn't find one. Does anyone use it before? Best regards
  25. R

    High temperature spiral sleeves

    Hi. I want use high temperature spiral sleeves which should withstand around 300 deg C and I want wrap these sleeves around power cables which are passed in enclosure having thermal block and we will heat this block up to 400 deg C Please suggest me how to overcome and suggest best suitable...
  26. Y

    Thermally insulating tape at high temperature (350C)

    Hi all, I am looking for a tape or gel that is very thermally insulating and apply that on my glass slide to serve as a thermally insulating material. The work temperature is 100C to 350C and it should be able to work with clean water. Any recommendations?
  27. G

    Why does the human body need such a high temperature?

    If our body temperature falls below 30 degrees C or so, it stops functioning properly and we die. 30 C seems still a rather warm temperature for normal chemical reactions to be able to occur, and in most environmental conditions inhabited by men it still represents a temperature gradient...
  28. CFDFEAGURU

    ANSYS Mechanical APDL - High Temperature Creep Modeling via Isochronous Curves

    ANSYS can be used to model creep in a number of different ways. If you are designing to ASME Section VIII, Div., 2 you might have to verify that your design meets the "shake down to elastic action" criteria. Basically, that means that the strains do not continue to increase over the number of...
  29. V

    Heating a small steel plate to high temperature

    Hello, For my setup I'm looking for a method to heat a small stainless steel plate (50x50x10mm(2x2x0.4 inches), AISI 304) to 900ºC (1652ºF). The plate is fixed onto the frame, so it can't be removed. I've found some induction heaters, but they were all too expensive. Anyone got some...
  30. A

    Quantum harmonics oscillator at high temperature

    Hello The energy of harmonics oscillator, started of U=-\frac{\partial}{\partial \beta} \ln Z is equal to \frac{\hbar \omega}{2} + \frac{\hbar \omega}{exp(\beta \hbar \omega)-1}. At high temperature, i could say that exp (\beta \hbar \omega ) \approx 1 + (\beta \hbar \omega ), and then...
  31. A

    High Temperature Limit: Equal Probability of Energy States Explained

    Suppose you have a system with different energy states and assume that it is in contact with a heat resevoir (i.e. you know the average of the total of the system). In this case, no matter the system, it seems a general property that in the high temperature limit all energy states become equally...
  32. J

    How Do I Do High Temperature Steaming?

    Hello all, I am looking to create a steaming unit that will steam catalyst at 816 C. I'm unsure as to what is the best way to go about this. Would a sealed container with steam and catalyst be the best or would flowing steam be better? Any recommendations on what type of setup to use? I...
  33. C

    High temperature superconductors

    What is the highest temperature a superconductor can work today?
  34. O

    High temperature fibre optic strain adhesive anyone?

    So I am currently using a high temperature epoxy based strain adhesive on a polyimide coated single mode fibre. This however gives rubbish results in terms of creep at anything above 160 deg C. Does anyone have any experience with this type of problem at all? I know that there are...
  35. W

    How to reduce big motor tripping problem in high temperature environment

    Hi, To rise the oven temperature, I try to increase my oven blower motor HP from 7.5HP to 10HP then to 15HP. The result is I have achieved my objective, the oven temperature rise when I increase the motor HP.However, those induction motors cannot run more than half year. The major problem is...
  36. C

    Why methane burn at high temperature?

    Methane burns at 1200k without any spark or ignition. But why is this so?Why so high temperature? Isn't it that when there is the right proportion of methane and oxygen, combustion will occur with a small energy needed? Or is it because of high activation energy?
  37. D

    High Temperature Dielectric Coating

    I'm looking for some sort of dielectric coating that can be used at high temperatures. I'm working on trying to create a voltage point charge in a high temperature steam environment using a coated accupuncture needle. The goal is to be able to coat the needle thinly and uniformly, leaving only...
  38. M

    Thermodynamics: PV diagram: High temperature adiabat

    1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known Hi, this is my first post on here. Does an adiabat get steeper at higher temperatures? I think it does, but I wanted to make sure I'm thinking about it in the right way. Also, what is the constant in the PV relations...
  39. M

    Vibrational free energy in the high temperature limit

    This doesn't really qualify as a proper physics question, but I don't know where to put this... I have been thinking about this for about 2 hours now, and just don't get the correct approximation. For the free energy of the vibrational degrees of freedom of a diatomic ideal gas I have...
  40. J

    Flouride salt safety issues? (high temperature)

    Hello, I am working a on a project to improve the thermal properties (heat capacity, thermal conductivity) of heat transfer fluids used in concentrated solar power (CSP). First a suitable base fluid is required, the higher the working temperature the better for thermal efficiency. Most of the...
  41. A

    What it would mean to have a high temperature

    So I have been thinking about what it would mean to have a high temperature. This means the the change in entropy per change in energy is very low. But what does this mean combinatorically? For instance, take a canonical ensemble of N atoms and U energy. When is temperature high? I have...
  42. P

    High Temperature Super Alloys

    Is anyone interested in starting a discussion on this topic? I use them in designs, but don't understand the metallurgy very well. In particular, how does adding Al to Ni increase the melting point of Ni? It also improves a number of other desirable characteristics. The peak of the melting...
  43. J

    Does anyone make a small high temperature and high pressure pump?

    Hello, I have recently started work as a researcher at a university investigating heat transfer fluids (HTF). One of the tasks is to build a pumping test rig to simulate plant conditions. One of the fluids being tested is a eutectic mix of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide which is similar in density...
  44. M

    Very High Temperature materials

    Hi everyone, I have been trying to find some materials that could be used for very high temperature piping but have been struggling quite a lot. I have been looking at stainless steel alloys mostly. The specs are really tough: 1200 celcius of helium at 80MPa. My main concern here is...
  45. J

    Help with Very High Temperature superconductors (28°C )

    Help with Very High Temperature superconductors (28°C!) Since several months researchers on www.superconductors.org have published results about Very High Temperature SuperConductors (VHTSC). A new result has been recently published: http://www.superconductors.org/28c_rtsc.htm I don't...
  46. O

    What does high temperature mean?

    Hello All, Suppose i have two identical boxes having sufficient oxygen ( these boxes contains same amount of coal, but one in one box coal is raw while in the other coal is burning ) when i use thermometer, the thermometers reads different readings one is high other is low. Let us...
  47. P

    What is the process called of heating alloys to High temperature for strength

    What is the process called of heating alloys to Hightemperature 10,000f+ and making them many times there normal strength? do most uivercitys have such a machine? I read about it years ago in New scientist magazine, any help would be great Andrew Perry
  48. P

    Separation of water from air at high temperature

    How might one try to separate water from air at high temperature (say, 75degC) - if the gas if fully saturated? I understand that you should try to cool it down first to do so, but other than putting it though a heat exchanger is there any other approach you can take? Thanks
  49. B

    High temperature liquid pump

    I have recently gotten heavily into home beer brewing with some people. To improve on the cooling of the wort (boiled beer before fermentation), I want to pump the boiling liquid through a long copper coil. This coil will be inside a cooler filled with ice and the cooled wort will come out on...
  50. M

    Urgent: Mechanical Properties at High Temp for 9Cr Steel

    Urgent! Mechanical Properties at high temperature At first, My cordial respect to all members. I need help regarding my research study. I read a paper by Yaguchi, M., T. Ogata, and T. Sakai, Creep strength of high chromium steels welded parts under multiaxial stress conditions...
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