# What is Newton: Definition and 517 Discussions

The Newton is a series of personal digital assistants (PDAs) developed and marketed by Apple Computer, Inc. An early device in the PDA category (the Newton originated the term), it was the first to feature handwriting recognition. Apple started developing the platform in 1987 and shipped the first devices in August 1993. Production officially ended on February 27, 1998. Newton devices ran on a proprietary operating system, Newton OS; examples include Apple's MessagePad series and the eMate 300, and other companies also released devices running on Newton OS. Most Newton devices were based on the ARM 610 RISC processor and all featured handwriting-based input.
The Newton was considered technologically innovative at its debut, but a combination of factors, some of which included its high price and early problems with its handwriting recognition feature, limited its sales. This led to Apple ultimately discontinuing the platform at the direction of Steve Jobs in 1998, a year after his return to the company.

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1. ### Why does the given conserved quantity mean the motion is on a cone?

TL;DR Summary: . An electrone moves in a magnetic field ##B(\vec r)=g \frac {\vec r}{|\vec r|^3}##. Why does the conservation of the quantity $$\vec J=\vec r \times\vec p +eg\frac {\vec r}{|\vec r|}$$ mean that the motion is on the surface of a cone?
2. ### B Newton's First Law -- Mistranslated for 3 centuries

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/mistranslation-of-newtons-first-law-discovered-after-nearly-300-years/
3. ### Loop problem with skier on ramp going into a loop-the-loop

I have an assignment in physics and I can't understand the difference between the 2 questions. That's the question A skier with mass m=70 kg stands on a ramp of height h. At the foot of the ramp, there is a loop with a radius of r=15 m. When entering the ramp, the speed is v1=0 m/s. a) For...
4. ### Uncertainty in Newton's law of cooling

I'm finding the uncertainty of k, given that each temperature has an uncertainty of +/- 0.5 degress.
5. ### General form of Newton II -- Not understanding this step in the derivation

For this, Does someone please know how do we derive equation 9.9 from 9.8? Do we take the limits as t approach's zero for both sides? Why not take limit as momentum goes to zero? Many thanks!
6. ### B Data needed - Related bodies and their stats

I’m analysing the gravitational relationships between different mass astronomical bodies and am getting sick of having to individually google and document these. Are there data sets out there that list pairs/sets of objects which includes their mass and distance from each other? Including...
7. ### I Stuck in understanding Newton's 3 laws

I'm stuck to understand 3 laws of Newton. It doesn't make sense to me. 1. Suppose the case when a person stay in a rest vehicle.When we accelerate the car the person still at rest so the person has to move to the tail of the vehicle cause his intertia of staying rest. If we decrese the...
8. ### Newton's 2nd Law: Why is Resistance Considered a Positive Force?

regarding the last question. I know that resistance is a negative force because it goes in the opposite direction to the movement of the boat. So whenever, I want to apply Newton's 2nd law of motion: the sum of forces = m a I should write - F resit = m.a. However, they have considered the...
9. ### B Understanding Newton Force: Real World Examples

I would just like to get a perspective on how much is an x amount of Newtons, like in real world examples. I know everyone says 100N is about equal to the force of a 10kg object being set on you, but this example really only gives perspective on downwards force. For example I calculated the...
10. ### I Weak principle of equivalence (Galileo, Newton)

Many tutorials that explain the weak principle of equivalence (Galileo, Newton) do not clearly state whether the body is affected by the force of inertia during free fall as a result of the gravitational acceleration of the body. In other words, the question is whether, during the free fall of a...
11. ### A Can Newton's Method Solve Freer Motion?

Hello everyone, my question is, if there is a case, where you can't you Langrange (1 or 2) but only Newton to solve the equation of motion? My guess is, that it might be, when we have no restrictions at all, so a totally free motion. Does anybody know?
12. ### Sir Isaac Newton exam question

I thought about using the snell’s law because it involves different refractive index but I have no idea why the wavelength would be affected by the snell’s law. I thought that maybe if I found the frequency I might be able to get the wavelength but, I don’t know which formula I should use. I...

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14. ### Principia Mathematica by Newton

I was wondering to read this book to get a better understanding of the classical world. I want to know what things are there that I can learn in this book? Is it worth it? Is it tough? Should I read it or it will be covered in undergraduate and graduate level of physics?
15. ### Newton's second law (My turtle named Newton being accelerated)

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/forces-Newtons-laws/Newtons-laws-of-motion/a/what-is-Newtons-second-law How do I find the horizontal right components force? It states it is 22 N but there is no reason that the left horizontal component is the same as the right. I thought the...
16. ### I Why Did Newton Use d² for Gravitation Law?

When Newton developed his law of universal gravitation, why would he use distance squared d², instead of 4/3πr³ as the field would expand in a sphere around the body?
17. ### B Balloon rocket- What happens inside and why the reaction?

The law of action and reaction is the explanation that I see everywhere. But I can't find anywhere what exactly pushes the balloon in the opposite direction as the air coming out. Air molecules come out to where pressure is less. What exactly moves the rubber balloon in the opposite direction...
18. ### I 1st law of Newton as a special case of the 2nd law (historical aspect)

I am speaking here not of the modern definitions (like a 1st Newton law as a definition of an inertial reference frame), but rather on the way the 1st law was formulated in the time of Newton. That is, it's obvious that the 1st Newton law in its original formulation is a corollary of the 2nd...
19. ### MHB Fixed point,, Jacobi- & Newton Method, Linear Systems

Hey! :giggle: Question 1 : Let $g(x)-=x-x^3$. The point $x=0$ is a fixed point for $g$. Show that if $x^{\star}$ is a fixed point of $g$, $g(x^{\star})=x^{\star}$, then $x^{\star}=0$. If $(x_k)$ the sequence $x_{k+1}=g(x_k)$, $k=0,1,2,\ldots$ show that if $0>x_0>-1$ then $(x_k)$ is...
20. ### MHB Convergence of Newton method

Hey! 😊 I have calculated an approximation to $\frac{\pi}{2}$ using Newton's method on $f(x)=\cos (x)$ with starting value $1$. After 2 iterations we get $1,5707$. Which conditions does the starting point has to satisfy so that the convergence of the sequence of the Newton iterations to...
21. ### Selection of a compression spring

Summary:: What does I need to consider in order to get the right spring? Hello. I need a compression spring that require 10 lbs of force in order to be compressed 1cm. The springs outer diameter (De) has to be 1cm. The spring will be made out of piano wire. Which values of specification does...
22. ### Casimir Effect experiment and implications on motion theory

Quantum mechanics has argued for years that space is not a vacuum. Arguments attempting to brush aside quantum mechanics vacuum theory claiming, it's 'just a quantum mathematical theory' can now put to rest. In this article, laboratory experimentation demonstrates that the Casimir Effect can...
23. ### Calculating Final Positions & Velocities for M1, M2 & Spring After DeltaT

Let's say you have two masses on either side of a spring. Mass 1 is connected to the end of a spring. The spring itself has no mass. Mass 2 is free in space. So you have: [M1]-[spring] [M2] So it's more descriptive, I'll name the variables like you might in programming. Let's define...
24. ### MHB Multidimensional Newton Raphson

Hello, I am having difficulty in translating the univariate Newton's approximation {Xn = Xn-1 - [ f(Xn-1) / f'(Xn-1)]} into the multidimensional case. My multidimensional equation system is y = F.x where y and x are (nx1) column vectors and the coefficients matrix F is (nxn), so that (nx1) =...
25. ### I Einstein vs Newton: The concept of inertial vs non inertial frames

Is concept of inertial vs non inertial frame inveted in Einsten theory of relativity or Newton knows that we can see on same object from different perspective? (Newton set 3 laws for inertial frame,so did he knew for realitivtiy when view object form different perspective/frame and did he...
26. ### B Testing the effect of Gravity at home....

Hi ... air resistance is the reason that objects of different mass fall to Earth at different speeds. In a vacuum all objects fall to Earth at the same rate regardless of mass. OK - I get it but all the experiments that illustrate this tend to rely on tall buildings or massive vacuum chambers...
27. ### Understanding the Third Law of Newton — How can the forces be equal?

Hello guys, The third law says: "For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The statement means that in every interaction, there is a pair of forces acting on the two interacting objects. The size of the forces on the first object equals the size of the force on the second...
28. ### Investigating the Impact of Heating a Substance on Room Temperature

Through the research that I conducted is that I wasn't able to find actual supporting answer to this question. I struggle with Physics and math and because of Coronavirus my school has shut down meaning I don't have access to my teachers or tutor. The main line that i am thinking is that if it...
29. ### Introductory application of the Newton Euler equations to a composite body

α is the second derivative of angle and w is the first derivative In the free body diagrams the only force on A is the normal force since it is only constrained not to move vertically. Have I drawn the free body diagram and kinetic diagram correctly? By relating the accelerations of the...
30. ### Heating a soup (solving this problem with a DE)

I'm having quite a bit of a problem with this one. I've managed to figure out that ##T_0 = 0##. However, not knowing what ##q(t)## is bothers me, although it seems that I could theoretically solve the problem without knowing it. For ##t>t_1##, integration by parts gives me ##T = Ce^{-t/10}##...

32. ### Is Newton I independent of Newton II?

If Newton II is defined as ##\sum F = \dot{p}## and ##p = mv##, why do we consider Newton I as a separate law for cases where ##\sum F = 0##? Is Newton I really independent of Newton II?
33. ### Is the Cauchy momentum equation the general form of Newton II?

Is it appropriate to say that within classical physics the general form of Newton II is the Cauchy momentum equation? This equation applies to an arbitrary continuum body. Therefore it is more general than the common form of Newton II which applies basically to point masses and centers of mass...
34. ### Three masses, a string and pulley and a table -- solve for the acceleration

Let T be the tension in the string, a be the acceleration of mass 2m, 2a be the acceleration of mass m T = (m) (2a) ---eq(1) The mass 3m will come down with acceleration a’ = (a+2a)/2 = 3a/2 3mg - 2T = 3m . 3a/2 from equation 1 3mg - 2(2ma) = 3m . 3a/2 thus a = 6/17g thus acceleration of 3m...
35. ### B Can someone please explain this paragraph from A Brief History Of Time

what does it mean when you say the stars all fall in on each other?And what does the line uniform distribution of stars outside this region mean?and what does this line mean- again fall in?what does fall in mean? would really appreciate some help in understanding the meaning in simpler words...
36. ### How did Newton obtain F = ma?

Hi, I am concluding a phD in Nanotechnology and I just started studying physics by myself. I just wonder how did Newton obtain F = ma? What experiment did he perform? Which 2 variables did he measure? How did he measure them?
37. ### Force as a function of time

Hello, I have the force defined as a function of time, where F=A-Bt and A=100N, B=100Ns-1. I have to determine, how long it will take for object to stop, if t0=0s and v0=0,2ms-1 and mass of the object is m=10kg. Can somebody please help me with this, because I'm having hard time with this task.
38. ### Understanding forced motion in space

Hello, Can you please explain the analogy oft quoted to explain the concept of applied motion to objects in space, which goes as follows : 1. You are standing on a skateboard or sitting in a boat floating on the water, holding a bowling ball. 2. You throw the bowling ball towards the back of...
39. ### Relationship between the Volume of a balloon and the time it takes to deflate

I would like to ask a question on whether there is a proportionality between volume of a balloon, and the time it takes to deflate. I have conducted several balloon hovercraft experiments. I need to find the relationship between the amount of air pumped into the balloon and how long the...
40. ### Is 1800 Newton meters enough torque to generate 1.5 kilowatts of power?

i am working on new project so i could use your help. Please and Thank you Tony
41. ### Formula for fictitious moments

Hi All, Everyone knows so called "fictitious" forces, also known as "inertial" forces. They are forces felt by some mass point placed in a non-inertial frame. For example: a ball in a moving car or in a carousel. Maybe most intuitive fictitious forces are centrifugal forces, but there are also...
42. ### I Bending of light - Newton vs. Einstein

Using Newton's equation for gravity and assuming a corpuscular theory of light, one can calculate the angle that light would bend in a gravitational field. General relativity predicts a bend that is twice as large. In the Newtonian limit of GR (which includes weak gravity), does the GR...
43. ### Grams vs. Newtons: Why Do I See Weights Measured in Grams?

Ok so I've asked my physics teacher and a statics teacher as well and I couldn't get a straight answer from either. So here's my questions... Correct me if I'm wrong, but isn't the gram a unit of mass? Not weight? I thought that for mass to become a unit of weight, it has to have to...
44. ### Exploring the Math Behind Inertial Frames

This question concerns inertial frames. I am aware that an inertial frame is one that is not accelerating. I am aware of an alternative definition: it is one on which no forces are applied. (Yes, they are the same thing.) I am also aware of the d'Alembert "forces" that appear when a frame is...
45. ### I Exploring Feynman's Theory on Reflection of Light from Glass Surfaces

I recently started reading Feynmans book QED. There are a couple of questions I have regarding his theory on the percentage of light that is reflected of two surfaces of glass. My question is as follows, A piece of glass in fact has four surfaces. The front of the glass the back side of...
46. ### I Is quantum mechanics formulated from 1st principles?

I was surprised recently to learn that one of the reasons both Newton and Einstein were so revolutionary was that they performed a neat mathematical trick. For Newton, it was the mathematical derivation of Kepler's laws from Newton's laws of gravitation and motion. For Einstein, it was the...
47. ### MHB Solving Equations Using Bisection, Newton, and Secant Methods

Task Use the Bisection, Newton, and Secant methods to solve (to at least 8 signicant figures) the equation sin(x) = 0.98 cos(2x2) over the interval [0, 2.5], in radiant units. For the Newton method, try with several different initial guesses including x0 = 1. With the Secant method, use the same...
48. ### F=ma -- How did Newton find this?

I did some googling but only found nothing to answer my question. How did Newton come up with this formula, literally/physically? Did he have chunks of stuff and moved them around, then logged various results. Then maybe he played around with various formulas and saw which fit the data?
49. ### Contributions to Dynamics - China

Hello, To ensconce this question properly, we know that some of the major contributions to the discipline of rigid body and classical particle dynamics came from: Newton, Euler, Hamilton, Lagrange and so on... (no need to suggest other western names right now - I am aware of them). However I...
50. ### Effect of ambient pressure on Newton cooling (water)

If I have a laboratory water bath (circulated for homogeneity in temp) that I will monitor over a period of time (probably 2 scenarios, an hour at most, and then at least 24 hours or longer), how do I quantify the effect of atmospheric pressure in our test lab. What I will do is use an...