Work and energy Definition and 114 Discussions

In physics, work is the energy transferred to or from an object via the application of force along a displacement. In its simplest form, it is often represented as the product of force and displacement. A force is said to do positive work if (when applied) it has a component in the direction of the displacement of the point of application. A force does negative work if it has a component opposite to the direction of the displacement at the point of application of the force.
For example, when a ball is held above the ground and then dropped, the work done by the gravitational force on the ball as it falls is equal to the weight of the ball (a force) multiplied by the distance to the ground (a displacement). When the force F is constant and the angle between the force and the displacement s is θ, then the work done is given by:



{\displaystyle W=Fs\cos {\theta }}
Work is a scalar quantity, so it has only magnitude and no direction. Work transfers energy from one place to another, or one form to another. The SI unit of work is the joule (J), the same unit as for energy.

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  1. R

    When is power constant in this scenario?

    Power P = F x v,where F is force and v is velocity, if power remains constant then i think force can not remain constant as it will change the velocity v, but the solution I found is, F = ma, v = at, so, P = F x v = ma x at = ma2 t, after that calculus comes to show that displacement is...
  2. A

    How can work done by friction stop motion if it is less than applied force?

    The answer is .32m. I set the elastic potential energy as equal to the work, but at first I put the force in the work equation as (F elastic - F kinetic friction) times distance and rearranged. 1/2kx^2 = (kx-Ff) d (0.5) (22) (0.035)^2 = (22 x 0.035-0.042) d 0.013475= 0.728 d 0.013475/0.728 = d...
  3. M

    A Calculate work done by a time-dependent pressure to a spherical hole

    Hello, Suppose I have a spherical hole in a elastic infinite space. I apply a time-dependent pressure to the inner surface of the spherical hole. I know p = f(t). If I only consider this as an elastic problem, no failure happened, how can I calculate the work done by p during the time from 0...
  4. M

    B Various Work and Energy laws

    Hi, everyone! There are a lot of work energy conservation laws and I get confused which one of them summarizes all of them. Which one I should keep with me and rest should be easy to derive on spot ? 1. ##\Delta E_{mec}=0## 2. ##\Delta E_{mec}=W_{ext}## 3.##\Delta E_{mec} + \Delta...
  5. M

    I Derivation of -dU/dx=F

    Hi, Everyone! This is the page(first image) from Principle of physics by resnik. I want to ask the definition of work(##W=F(x) \Delta x##) by variable force here is somewhat different from the usual integral version. I don't understand how is this valid definition? Secondly, how did they reach...
  6. A

    Finding kinetic energy and initial velocity of a cart over time

    Here's my list of variables and things to account for: m=100kg Wnc=5000J Wfriction=-500J -Kinetic energy will be doubled (though I don't know how that plays into it exactly) -I don't think there's any PE because it's on level ground My idea of what the equation might be: Wnc +1/2mv^2initial =...
  7. rudransh verma

    B About verification on Kinetic energy and work

    1. From resnik, Halliday “Kinetic energy K is energy associated with the state of motion of an object. The faster the object moves , the greater is the kinetic energy” If I am right this means that greater the kinetic energy, greater is its speed. 2. Force transfers energy to the body due to...
  8. L

    Work and kinetic energy comprehension question

    Hello, I’ll start by saying I have the answers and the steps to the solutions, but there’s a comprehension disconnect somewhere that I’m trying to figure out. There are two parts to my question but the second one may not apply depending on the answer to the first. I wasn’t sure from the forum...
  9. MattGeo

    I Work Done/Energy Transferred in One Dimensional Collision

    I spend a lot of time thinking about collision problems because for me they are both extremely interesting and often very difficult to grasp when one thinks about them beyond the basics we are taught in introductory or even intermediate university courses. Suppose there is a perfectly elastic...
  10. bluesteels

    Does work = neg or pos change in potential energy?

    u = (9*10^9)(1.61*10^-19)^2 * (1/[3*10^-15 ]- 1/[2*10^-10]) u = 7.68*10^-14 J but here the question. I have been taught that W= -U so shouldn't the answer be negative?? When i look up at the solution all other sources say that the W = U and therefore the answer is in postive.
  11. hayke101

    Spring work done at an angle

  12. L

    B Work and energy: conceptual doubt

    Suppose I am sliding a block very slowly on a rough surface. If the block has traveled ##d## distance then work done by me is ##W_1=\mu mg d## and that by friction is ##W_2=-\mu mg d##. Now the energy transferred from me to block is ##\mu mgd## and that taken by friction from block is ##\mu mgd...
  13. Rikudo

    The work that is necessary to pull a hanging chain

    This is the solution from my textbook, and I have some questions about the method The mass of hanging chain : $$m_h =\frac m 5$$ the center of mass of the hanging chain : $$h_1 = - \frac{1} {2} \cdot \frac L 5 = - \frac L {10}$$ (the minus sign here means that it is under the table surface)...
  14. JackyCheukKi

    Work energy theorem -- me

    Guys, I have a problem that really needs you guys to help, I know it is a stupid question but please bear with me: Context: You have a block on a slope(has friction) you use a string to pull the block up with constant speed. Problem: So according to the network theorem, the work net is equal...
  15. Soyuz42

    Why can I not use the work-kinetic energy theorem for this falling elevator problem?

    As stated, part (a) says that the work done by the gravitational force ##\vec{F_g}## is 59 kJ. If ##W_T## is the work done by the elevator cable during the 12 m fall, then using the work-kinetic energy theorem, \begin{align*} K_f -K_i &= W_g + W_T\\ \frac12m({v_f}^2 - {v_i}^2) &= 59000 + W_T\\...
  16. E

    Work in thermodynamics

    i can't manage to grasp the concept of PV work in thermodynamics, for example we all know that W= integral(F*dx) like here but this says that, at the end, W doesn't really depend on the gas temperature or reversible process crap at the end W is simply a constant, atmospheric pressure is...
  17. mattlfang

    Find the velocity and acceleration of a pulley in a mass-spring system

    This looks like a classical setup but I can't find a solution. We can calculate the energy of the system by looking at the work done by the gravity and the spring. But how do we divide the energy between the kinetic energy of the pulley and the rotation of the pulley?
  18. Like Tony Stark

    Conservative forces vs friction

    Hello I've written that homework statement as an example to illustrate my doubt: How can I tell if a force is conservative or not? I've read that, if the curl of the force is 0, it's conservative. But what about the friction force (##f=\mu N##)? Its curl is also zero, but it's not conservative...
  19. E

    Work & energy VS conservation of angular momentum

    Summary:: Would energy method give us a different answer from conservation of angular momentum? Hello, I do not know how to type equations here. So, I typed my question in Word and attached it here. Please see photos. Note: This question is not a homework. I did not find it in textbooks or...
  20. Rahulx084

    Joule Thomson expansion

    Wikipedia says, Unlike a free expansion , in Joule Thomson expansion work is done causing the change in internal energy. Whether the internal energy increases or decreases is determined by whether work is done on or by the fluid; that is determined by the initial and final states of the...
  21. R

    Variable friction on an inclined plane and maximum velocity

    This problem was from the chapter on Work and Energy so, I thought of using the principle of conservation of mechanical energy. Clearly, the potential energy of the block decreases by mgh (assuming the block has mass m). This energy should have been converted to kinetic energy, but it clearly...
  22. ItsukaKitto

    Maximum height a block reaches after separating from a curved moving ramp

    Diagram attached at the end I personally think there's something wrong with this question, and I'd like if someone can tell me whether it's the question that is wrong or my approach. If I attempt the solution thinking that M should be stationary, the solution is simple. 0 - 1/2 mv^2 = -mgh...
  23. P

    Difficult Elastic Collision problem between two springs

  24. kuruman

    Work is not done by static friction when accelerating a car

    A recent thread posed the question whether work is done by static friction in the case of an accelerating car. Before I had a chance to reply, the thread was closed on the grounds that the subject was "beaten to death". Undaunted, I am determined to deliver the coup de grâce here with a simple...
  25. Prabs3257

    Velocity of an object on an inclined plane

    I used work energy theorem between initial top point and point x along the incline(downwards) i got the expression of v then diffrentiated it to get a maxima but it gives me a wrong ans which is 10/6 but the actual ans is 10/3 please tell me what i did wrong
  26. RyanRhino

    Calculate the average force used to drag a box up a ramp

    I first wrote down that 55% = Eout/Ein I also know that W = (Facos20)(4) and I substitute it into the first equation 55% = Eout/[(Facos20)(4)] But I'm missing two variables here. Did i forget something or is the question missing some information?
  27. babaliaris

    Why does voltage = energy/charge?

    When you say ##i = \frac{dq}{dt}## it makes sense since current is the flow of charge over time. But why was voltage defined as ##v = \frac{dw}{dq}## ? What made physicians define it in this way? Is there a mathematical way that can lead to this definition or did they define voltage just on the...
  28. M

    A Motorcyclist crossing a stretch of land

    TA = Ec 0,7*m*g*d = (m*v² /2) 1,4*g*d = (400/12,96) 14*d = (400/12,96) d = 2,2 m No
  29. A

    Work and energy of an object on a ice slope

    Homework Statement: A perfect hemisphere of frictionless ice has radius R=7 meters. Sitting on the top of the ice, motionless, is a box of mass m=7 kg. The box starts to slide to the right, down the sloping surface of the ice. After it has moved by an angle 11 degrees from the top, how much...
  30. A

    Work of a object moving across surfaces with different friction

    Homework Statement: Hetsut is the foreman of a construction project in ancient Egypt. He needs to move a giant block of stone, of mass 12 metric tons, from the docks to the temple grounds. He can go along the roads by traveling 295 meters east, then 89 meters north. Along the roads, the...
  31. A

    Work of gravity on an object sliding down a frictionless sphere

    Homework Statement: A perfect hemisphere of frictionless ice has radius R=6.5 meters. Sitting on the top of the ice, motionless, is a box of mass m=6 kg. The box starts to slide to the right, down the sloping surface of the ice. After it has moved by an angle 20 degrees from the top, how much...
  32. A

    Total work of a directional wind on a mailman

    Homework Statement: Mike the Mailman takes his oath seriously: "Neither snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor gloom of night stays these courageous couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds". Even though a blizzard is raging outside, he goes out to deliver the mail. He makes four...
  33. SLTH02

    Work required to attach the bowstring to the bow?

    E final = (1/2)(500)(1.14012)^2 = 324.968 J E initial = (1/2)(500)(0.5)^2 = 62.5 J E final - E initial = 262.468 J
  34. KingOfDirewolves

    Classical Mechanics Problem Based On Conservation Of Energy

    I have tried using Conservation of Energy but I'm getting incorrect answer.
  35. naji0044

    Inelastic collision problem: Bullet striking a wood block

    Hey everyone I'm struggling on the last part of this assignment. I need to find the total work done by the block and the bullet, when the collision happens. The informations is: mblock=0.3 kg mbullet=0.01 kg vg=700 m/s Height=0.72m The final speed after the collision is vf=22.6 m/s and the...
  36. Don Bori

    Water Tank Refilling via Hydraulic Water Pumping System

    Based on my understanding, Top Tank Refilling Advantage: Atmospheric Pressure Disadvantage: High Head (Requires more distance, thus more Work since W = f x d) Bottom Tank Refilling Advantage: Low Head Disadvantage: High Static Pressure (Requires more Force, thus more Work since W = f x d)...
  37. Shivam

    What is the kinetic energy of the block when it is moved 2cm.

    My attempt at the solution... I only have problem in solving part a) 1) i calculated the spring force actingbon the table block and it is greater than the frictionnand tension force acting in the opposite direction, so by that the block will move in left. 2) now i found that which forces are...
  38. Hawkingo

    Why there is a negative sign in the formula of calculating work done?

    $$W = - \int _ { a } ^ { b } \vec { F } \cdot d \vec { r }$$ ( The Force here is referring to the applied force, When moving a positive charge towards another positive charge(stationary) / field In this formula why there is a negative sign in the formula? I am not asking the sign of the total...
  39. patric44

    What is the direction of work in this figure?

    iam not sure of the direction of work , is it positive becouse pulleys change the direction of the force ? or is it negative because of the arrow that indicates the direction of acceleration ??!
  40. Eucliwood

    Work done on an object given a variable mass

    I was just doing some review on my physics lecture and I stumble on the idea of what if there was an object hanging and the cord mass is also included in the weight and it's displaced upward without having velocity nor time hypothetically and the cord change mass. I tried solving it by W = fΔx...
  41. Emilyyyyyyyyy

    Calculate the impact force when falling from a height

    To find vx vx = dx/t = 3.86 m/1.5 s= 2.573 m/s To find Ek Ek = ½mvx²= ½(79.4)(2.573)²= 262.8 J W = FnetΔd Fnet = 262.8 J/ 3.86 m = 68 N He hits him with a force of 68N
  42. F

    Maximum displacement in mass spring system

    Homework Statement A block is suspended by an ideal spring of the force constant K. If the block is pulled down by applying a constant force F and if maximum displacement of the block from its initial position of rest is X then, find the value of X. Homework Equations mg + F = XK + K(mg/K)...
  43. A

    What is the work done on cart by the string?

    Homework Statement A cart of mass M1 = 6 kg is attached to a block of mass M2 = 3 kg by a string that passes over a frictionless pulley. The system is initially at rest and the table is frictionless. After the block has fallen a distance h = 1 m: What is the work Ws done on the cart by the...
  44. T

    Shooting bullets, work & power

    Homework Statement When bullets are shot on Superman, they bounce off of his chest. 100 Bullets will be shot on his chest per minute, each with a mass of 9g and v= 1000m/s. Assume that the bullets will bounce off elastically back in x-direction. a) What is the average power of all of the...
  45. T

    Kinetic energy & Conservation of energy

    Homework Statement You are driving with your car (of total mass: 1.2tonnes) with a speed of v=50km/h, until you see an obstacle. a) What is the kinetic energy of the car? b) When you start to brake, there is still 15m until the obstacle. What must be the size of the friction coefficient (µ)...
  46. T

    Finding the Work of a spring and friction with a changing angle

    Homework Statement We shot a projectile with mass ##m## and velocity ##v_0## with angle ##\phi## it collide with a box with mass ##M## at the maximum height of its path. Then, they both start to move with another speed. (We define ##t=0## at this time) (Completely Inelastic Collision). The box...
  47. T

    Question about the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem - Pulling a cart

    Homework Statement Question from Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, Walker) This figure below shows a cord attached to a cart that can slide along a frictionless horizontal rail aligned along an x axis. The left end of the cord is pulled over a pulley, of negligible mass and friction...
  48. V

    Problem in understaning potential energy

    Homework Statement If we lift a block with constant velocity, by applying a force mg upwards, is the work done zero? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution The work done must be zero as the resultant force is zero, what I don't understand is how does the block get potential energy if...
  49. babaliaris

    Pendulum: Calculating Work

    I know that I'm rushing too much but I wanted to see if I can calculate the work of a pendulum that does oscillation with a similar way you calculate the work of a spring. Consider the following free body diagram: Things i noticed: 1) The position is changing both in x and y-axis while the...
  50. P

    Work: I am having problem determining the elongation in spring

    Homework Statement A spring has been attached to an object which is kept on the ground. The spring is initially in its natural length: 'l' when a force 'F' is applied on it. The force 'F' slowly pulls the object so it does not attain any acceleration. There's a point 'P' on the line which is...