Components of O Type Blood & Rhesus Factor

In summary, the rhesus factor is not always included in the name of the blood type. Rh factor is a protein cotained in red blood cells and if you have the protein you are RH positive, if you do not you are RH negative. People with RH negative blood can not accept RH positive blood. The converse, RH positve blood can accept RH neg.
  • #1
O type blood

Blood that is donated isn't necessarily compatible even if it's O type right because of the rhesus factor? Somebody told me it was but I think maybe they were wrong?
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  • #2
O type with a negative RH factor is compatible with all other blood types.
  • #3
Is all you need to know about how compatible the rhesus factor is in the blood included in the name of the blood type? For example with blood type O negative does the negative mean a negative RH factor? Can you tell that there is a negative RH factor just from the words O negative?
  • #4
Rh factor is a certain protein cotained in red blood cells. If you have the protein you are RH positive, if you do not you are RH negative. People with RH negative blood can not accept RH positive blood. The converse, RH positve blood can accept RH neg.

If a female with RH negative was given Rh positive they could build up anti bodies. If they later became pegnant and the fetus was a Rh pos, her antibodies could attack the fetus' blood supply. They have a anti-RH shot for this.
  • #5
As far as Type A or B, there are antigens A and B
type A people- have the A antigens but have anti bodies for the B antigens
type B people- have B antigens and anti bodies for A
type AB have both antigens
and type O have antibodies for both


O neg can receive only O neg
O pos -- O pos, O neg
A neg -- A neg, O neg
A pos -- A pos, A neg, O pos, O neg
B neg -- B neg, O neg
B pos -- B pos, B neg, O pos, O neg
AB neg -- AB neg, A neg, B neg, O neg
AB pos can accept all blood types
  • #6
One thing I was wondering:

I read about a situation where they connected the blood of a young mouse up to an older mouse for 6 weeks. But they said they couldn't be done with people because it would cause problems with the immune system. Would connecting the blood of two people for 6 weeks cause them problems with their immune systems even if the blood were compatible? I mean if there was a huge age difference between the two people, would that cause an immune system problem due to the age difference? If their blood was connected for 6 weeks?
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  • #7
blood transfusions you are ONLY red blood cells...

if you are connecting blood from mice, you are connecting whole blood -> includes white blood cells -> massive immune responce would quickly kill...
  • #8
What can you have transferred to you in a blood transfusion without dying?

You can transfer different things you just can't transfer whole blood at the same time?
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  • #9
When you transfer blood you receive everything red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma. You would also transfer any infectious desease
  • #10
then why would being connected to another person's bloodstream, so that both people were receiving each other's blood be fatal if the blood was compatible and disease free?
  • #11
Whole blood is rarley transfer today. it is broken down into its separate compnents. Then only the part needed is transfered. ie- red blood cells
  • #12
So if whole blood was transferred would that be fatal? Ie if two bodies were connected up to each other, would that be fatal? Why or why not? Could drugs to lessen rejection stop it from being fatal?
  • #13
Well depending on the difference on types of blood, it probably will be fatal
Also, if one person has any sort of disease (transmissible ones), then the other one will quickly suffer.
There is also the clash of white blood cells, it's be interesting to see the war between them.

Can't think of any other.
  • #14
they did interhuman transfers during world war two. it is possible if the blood types are compatible. I don't know what the succes rate was
  • #15
I mean if the blood type was compatible and disease free, but every part of the blood was transferred instead of just like, red blood cells, and it was transferred for 6 weeks, would you die because of things like white blood cells in the blood?
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  • #16
Hi bioquest,
When a unit of red cells is given it is usually transfused through a filter. There are special leukocyte (white cell) removal filters which are used for patients with a weak immune system. White cell antigens and immune response is more complicated than for red cells - one reason why they are not transfused like other blood products (red cells, platelets and plasma).
Whole blood transfusion can work with ABO/Rh compatible blood into a reasonably healthy patient but becomes more risky after multiple transfusions as antibodies form to other blood components, particularly white cells.
Hope this helps!
  • #17
So if 2 people shared a blood supply (Who had the same blood type and rhesus factor) for 5 weeks but didnt share white blood cells would it still be really dangerous/fatal because antigens would attach themselves to things other than white blood?
  • #18
Dang! I'm O-neg, but I think that I have so much blood in my alcohol system that they wouldn't take me as a donor.
  • #19
Revenged said:
if you are connecting blood from mice, you are connecting whole blood -> includes white blood cells -> massive immune responce would quickly kill...

Sorry I missed this the first time around. This is incorrect. It's actually a very classic experiment to demonstrate that a substance in the blood (i.e., a hormone) is the causative factor for a particular effect, and not some other system (i.e., nervous system) controlling the response. However, this relies upon the fact that laboratory mice are highly inbred strains, so there is very little genetic variability that would lead to an immune rejection of blood transferred in this way (we can also transplant other tissues in mice without the immune rejection you'd get in a person).
  • #20
okay but if you hooked up the blood supply of two people for 5 weeks, so that they were hooked up to each other but white blood cells were not transferred ie were filtered would that kill them/how bad would that for them due to antigens attaching to things other than white blood cells
  • #21
As long as the two people were compatible it would work in theory.
But again, complications would be more likely as time went on. When we talk about blood types i.e. O neg, O pos, A neg A pos etc. the "neg/pos" is the Rhesus antigen. In reality there are many more significant antigens that can cause a reaction with transfused blood - probably hundreds. A transfusion reaction can range from a mild fever through to shock. In the worst scenario the end result can be fatal.
  • #22
Can you filter out all the antigens and white blood cells, hypothetically?
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  • #23
If you took out everything (White blood cells, antigens, etc) in the liquid and solid parts of blood that could cause whoever the blood is given to to have bad reaction problems, what would you have left?
  • #24
  • #25
but what's in the serum?
  • #26
Water and a variety of protiens and nutrients
  • #27
What proteins does it have in it?
  • #28
Blood Match

For bone marrow matches and things like that they have a system like 6 out of 6 match right..
could you determine a blood match like hypothetically, how close could your blood match someone else's and be safe to receive in large amounts?
  • #29
Short answer: Normally, only the ABO group matters in transfusion. Rh type is usually irrelevant, but always considered in selection of blood.

Long answer: The only main considerations in crossmatching of blood in the normal population (that is, not a child or sickle cell patient, etc.) is that the main group and type are compatible.

The ABO group is determined by sugars attached to polysaccharide chains on the membrane of your red blood cells. Either you have one (A), the other (B), both (AB), or neither (O). Antibodies to these antigens occur naturally in the body--you never have to be exposed to A blood to have anti-A in your plasma. It forms shortly after you are born.

Rh type refers to whether or not you have the D antigen. If you do, you are Rh positive. If not, Rh negative. This antibody requires exposure to be developed, so in cases of massive transfusion, if the person does not already have anti-D, you can give Rh positive blood to an Rh negative person.

Keep in mind that there are many, many other antigens on human red blood cells. Every three days, a patient receiving blood must be screened for development of any antibodies that may have developed from the body recognizing the donor blood as "foreign".
  • #30
Immunoglobulins, albumin, transferrin, c-reactive protein, hormones, lipoproteins, lots of things. But you can't infuse serum into wouldn't do any good.

Plasma is normally given for the benefit of the clotting factors it holds, to help with coagulation therapy and clotting times.
  • #31
No, there is no way to chemically treat the RBC membranes to remove all the antigens without obliterating the cell itself.

Extended person to person cross-fusion of blood, even if WBCs were kept in the respective hosts, would likely be fatal. At what point, no one can say.

There are about two dozen antigens commonly tested for that can cause hemolytic reactions. The breakdown of person A's RBCs inside person B's body will potentially cause person B to recognize those membrane components as foreign. It will then mount an immune response and kill person A.

For a real life example, look no further than HDN, hemolytic disease of the newborn. It's the entire reason Rh negative women are given rhogam injections--once any fetal cells cross the placenta and are processed by the mom's immune system, her body may make anti-D (antibodies to the most common Rh protein). It will cross the placenta readily and destroy the fetal RBCs.

The same thing would happen between two individuals hooked to one another, only with one of several antibodies, not just anti-D.

Now, if you were to fully suppress their immune system so that they made no antibodies...well, any infection would likely kill them.
  • #32
I've just merged several threads together that are all asking essentially the same basic question.
  • #33
My interest in blood started with being interested in stem cells so and I didn't want to create a new thread

can newts regenerate any part of their head/brain other than jaws and eyes?
  • #34
This may help with some of your questions.
  • #35
How much is the difference in the amount of clotting enzymes in an old person compared to that of a young person?
What clotting enzymes are different between a young person and an old person?

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