I would like the formula that describes the reduction in pressure that results when a constant flow (cfm) of compressed air travels from a 3" diameter pipe through a bell reducer that provides a smooth transition to a 1.5" diameter pipe. Also, in the same piping configuration as described above, if the pressure drop is X psid acress the reducer, what will the pisd be if the cfm were doubled? What is the formula for this relationship as well? Is there a textbook that is available for non-engineers that describes the physics of compressed air in industrial compressed air systems? Thanks a million.