- #1

spindecide

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*I*is current,

**j**is current density, and sigma is conductivity) in the following image (from Modern Electrodynamics by Andrew Zangwill, the part on electromotive force) besides using

*V*=

*IR*and substituting the line integral of

**j**/conductivity for V? The aforementioned way requires that

**j**=conductivity*

**E**, but due to the emf,

**j**should be equal to conductivity*[

**E**+

**E'**], where

**E'**is a fictitious electric field representing the effect of any source of EMF.