The French Resistance (French: La Résistance) was a collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War. Resistance cells were small groups of armed men and women (called the Maquis in rural areas) who, in addition to their guerrilla warfare activities, were also publishers of underground newspapers, providers of first-hand intelligence information, and maintainers of escape networks that helped Allied soldiers and airmen trapped behind enemy lines. The Resistance's men and women came from all economic levels and political leanings of French society, including émigrés, academics, students, aristocrats, conservative Roman Catholics (including priests and nuns), Protestants, Jews, Muslims, liberals, anarchists, and communists.
The French Resistance played a significant role in facilitating the Allies' rapid advance through France following the invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944. The French Resistance provided military intelligence on the German defences known as the Atlantic Wall and on Wehrmacht deployments and orders of battle for the lesser-known invasion of Provence on 15 August. The Resistance also planned, coordinated, and executed sabotage acts on the Nazi electrical power grid, transport facilities, and telecommunications networks. The Resistance's work was politically and morally important to France both during the German occupation and decades that followed. It provided the country with an inspiring example of the patriotic fulfilment of a national imperative countering an existential threat to French nationhood. The actions of the Resistance stood in marked contrast to the collaborationism of the Vichy régime.After the Allied landings in Normandy and Provence, the paramilitary components of the Resistance were organized more formally, into a hierarchy of operational units known, collectively, as the French Forces of the Interior (FFI). Estimated at 100,000 fighters in June 1944, the FFI grew rapidly and reached approximately 400,000 by October. Although the amalgamation of the FFI was, in some cases, fraught with political difficulties, it was ultimately successful, and it allowed France to rebuild the fourth-largest army in the European theatre (1.2 million men) by VE Day in May 1945.
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In recent days I have done a few experiments measuring the current of water as it goes up from 9 volts up to 36 volts, and following Ohms law to convert it to resistance. And I discovered a very interesting trend. In between 9 and 18 volts, there is a massive drop in resistance (by around a...
Voltage SI unit = Volts
Current SI unit = Ampere
Resistance SI unit = Ohm
Ohm's law : V=IR
Did Georg Ohm (German), Ampere (French) & Volta (Italian) collaborated when Ohm came out with this electricity equation with units for voltage, current & resistance as per their surnames?
Credit goes to...
I check the datasheet of LM 319 high speed comparator online. I was wondering if LM 319 can accept negative supply voltage(-10V) and its possible to produce a 10V to -10V square wave which oscillates along origin rather than just 10V to 0v as shown below.
Hi,
This has long been in my head, I've seen it work out in reality, but I have no idea about the forces involved in this. As I don't have an engineering degree or mathematical knowledge in automotive engineering, I've come here for help. Sorry if I've used some terms where they do not fit, as...
I know that the resistance of an ohmic conductor increases with length because the electrons going through the conductor must undergo more collisions in a longer conductor. But why decreasing the cross-sectional area of the conductor also increases the resistance of a conductor?
I was following these [steps](https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/direct-current/chpt-10/delta-y-and-y-conversions/).
I was calculating resistance for left side circuit.
$$R_1=\frac{2 × 2}{2+2+4}=0.5\Omega$$
$$R_2=\frac{2 × 4}{2+2+4}=1\Omega$$
$$R_3=\frac{2 × 4}{2+2+4}=1\Omega$$
Then...
Summary:: Current through a certain resistor in a mixed dc circuit.
Hi, Sorry if this is the wrong forum.
I'm trying to work out the current through R1.The answer I need is 2 Amp, which I have confirmed with a simulation software.
I have calculated the source current as 8A, the current past...
Homework Statement:: A K-type thermocouple is connected as shown to sense temperature. The temperature zone is at 25°C. The RTD has a resistance of 100 at 0°C and a TCR coefficient of 0.00385. A 5V power supply drives the circuit. Calculate R2 for proper compensation. What is the emf produced...
R1 = 2 ohms ; R2 = 2 ohms; R3 = 1ohm
First figure:
I need to calculate the resistance between: a) A and C and b) A and B
a) R1 and R3 are in series => R13 = R1 + R3 = 3 ohms
R13 and R2 are in parallel => 1/Rp = 1/R13 + 1/R2 => Rp = 1.2 ohms
b) Here, between A and B there is only R1 so the...
Let us connect a battery of potential difference V to a wire. There is no resistance. Nothing!
Now the battery creates some potential difference and the charges in the conducting wire move due to the Electric field created in the conductor by the battery. So, as the charge moves, its potential...
In the circuit below, the output is 23 W across the resistor with the resistance 6 Ohm. Calculate the amount of current in all parts of the circuit as well as the polarity and EMF ε of the unknown battery.
Circuit:
My attempt:
I get 6 unknowns with 5 equations. I don't know how to find the...
The voltage source in the circuit below has been switched on for a long time when the switch S switches off. How long will it take before the current coming out of the capacitor has become less than 1 mA?
My attempt:
I am far from sure that my solution is correct. This is because i...
I am not sure how to treat the extra connections K12 and K34.
My first guess would be (R1 and R2) are parallel and so are (R3 and R4) and (R5 and R6) ,so
R_{total}= {R1*R2} /{R1+R2} +...
Or maybe the behaviour is like this:
(R1, R3, R5) are in series , and (R2 R4 R6) are, thus
R_{total}=...
I really don't have any clue why the total voltage is equal to the voltage drop over the 3 Ω and 2 Ω resistors and independent of the 4 Ω resistor . Does it have to do with parallel circuits?
I honestly don't know how to quite even begin this problem.
Looking at Fig 3-2, the slopes of the graphs are 1/R, and hence where the slopes are 0, we have infinite resistance, in which case current wouldn't flow through that resistor and hence simplify the circuit. So I was trying to find...
From the circuit I have:
##-v_b + v_a + V = 0##
##v_b - V = v_a##
##i_1 = (v_b - V)/R_1##
##I + i_2 = i_1##
##(v_b - V)/R_1 = I + v_b/R_2##
From this last equation I get ##v_b = 10.8## and hence ##v_a = 5.8##.
However, apparently that is wrong. (And hence my answers to #2 were all wrong as...
I am having a hard time solving this. Letting \$i\$ be the current flowing into ##R_3##, ##i_1## the current flowing through ##R_1## and ##i_2## the current through ##R_1##—and the node between R3 and R1 be e_1;
Using KVL and KCL, I've managed to find that
##i + I = i_1 + i_2##
Hence...
I assume that because there is a resistance, the polarity of the voltage must be the same as the charge flow, and thus the current, in order for energy to flow in the same direction.
For instance, could I use the example of a light bulb (the resistor) plugged into AC lines; we know that if the...
Homework Statement:: problem solving
You build a wire by combining an 8 inches copper wire with a 10 inches nichrome wire. If their combine resistance is 10 kΩ, find the cross section area of both wires. The nichrome wire has twice the area of the copper wire.
Homework Equations:: I = V/R...
I am going through "Circuit Analysis for Dummies". On pg 18, it says, "If you calculate the power dissipated as 0.1 watts, then a 0.25-watt resistor can handle this amount of power. A 0.125-watt resistor should be able to handle that amount as well, but when it comes to power ratings, err on the...
Composite materials consist of various components such as moist wood ,how will the internal resistance of this material behave?
If I want to study the resistance of composite materials, which topic should I study?
Hi,
I understand mathematically why using low resistance results in a greater heating effect. Could someone give an intuitive and microscopic picture of why the current contributes more to a greater power dissipation by the resistor rather than the resistance contribution to the power...
Hi there,
I have modeled with MAXSURF a few variations of a prehistoric logboat in order to test a few theories. Now, I am trying to look at resistance-performance over a range of speed. To do so, I need to include a constant drag coefficient without knowing the drag force and velocity (both...
(i) Dividing the rod into thicknesses of dx we get discs of area A with lengths=dx so using (****) we have the resistance of a typical disc (between point x' and x'+dx) as:
(1) ##R(x'dx)=\frac{dx}{g(x)A}##
(ii) Using (1) and (*) and the integrating from a to b of the entire rod we get...
Given that they're all on the same branch, I had assumed that they were in series with one another. But with the middle resistor having being on the middle of three branches, it looks parallel.
Like I said, I have a feeling it's in series (making the answer 3R).
This question is from a past...
Hi! I've been struggling with this.
Original exercise here: Find the value of Iy when R=0. And the value of Vx when R is infinite.
For the first part of the question I did this since R=0:
I've tried to solve this circuit and I get that Iy and I5 are 0 A, and this can't be possible since Iy...
I was reading The Feynman Lectures on physics http://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu/I_23.html chapter 23, section 4. In it he derives the equation for current when inductor, resistor and capacitor is connected in series with an alternating voltage source, he derives this equation:-...
Let's assume a 2:1 transformer which has a 100V Source connected on the primary circuit and has no/negligible resistance, on the secondary circuit a 5 Ohms resistor is connected. Using the 'Impedance Transfer/Reflection' method, the primary circuit would act as if there was a 25 Ohms resistor...
[ mentor note: post adjusted to conform to homework template and some spellings fixed ]
1. The Problem
I have some few questions that connect voltage, current and resistance.
Imagine that we have a circuit that consists of a battery (5V), 2 resistors. Now once we close the circuit, battery...
Homework Statement
1. A 2.01 uFcapacitor that is initially uncharged is connected in series with a 6.51 kΩ resistor and an emf source with 74.6 V and negligible internal resistance. The circuit is completed at t = 0.
a) Just after the circuit is completed, what is the rate at which electrical...
Imagine you have a vertical pressure head 2m tall with water flowing down to height 0m and emptying. Through this length we have 3 identical tubes of resistance R and length L. Assuming I know the volumetric flow rate(Q) as a function of height, how can I calculate the resistance of each tube...
I'm currently in a undergrad level course of eletromagnetism and my professor found it useful to remember quickly of some relationships that we see in high scool, among them power waste.
I got the formulas, since they're simple and are direct derivated from the definitions of electric current...
i have a drawing of a circuit that converts a signal in range [-5,5] V to a range [0,1.2]V .
i wish to understand how it works..
i have basic knowledge of electricity as an undergraduate in general physics but a bit rusty , thus i am here looking for answers...
Is ohmic resistance a "necessary evil" in order for transistors to be able to function as logic gates?
I mean, I have seen some circuits for the NAND gate in RTL and TTL and they both seem to involve ohmic resistances. Can we make a super conducting NAND gate that will have total ohmic...
Homework Statement
translation ; we know the values of
R1 = 1 ohm
R2= 2 ohm
R3= 6 ohm
R4= 2 ohm
R5= 4 ohm
R6= 4 ohm
we can also see the voltmeter reading a potential difference value of 8 volts , and the...
I was getting a bit confused with Ohm's law, and the relationship between the current, resistance and voltage/potential difference?
From my understanding, current and voltage both increase or decrease together, while current and resistance do the opposite?
I was then wondering if there was any...
I'm not really sure if this is even scientific but while calculating how much energy is stored in electromagnetic coils and capacitors, pretty much the same formula is used:
For electromagnetic coils it's U=0.5LI2
For capacitors it's U=0.5CV2
Why I think they're the same is that in a sense L to...
Homework Statement
I'm asked to find a combination of resistors (parallel and/or series) that uses resistors of 25 Ω, 100 Ω, 50 Ω, and 50 Ω. They should add up to give a total resistance of 62.5 Ω.
Homework Equations
Req for parallel = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + ...
Req for series = R1 + R2 + ...
The...
Homework Statement
I'm asked to find the voltage, current, and resistance through each resistor in the given circuit.
Homework Equations
Req for parallel = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + ...
Req for series = R1 + R2 + ...
The Attempt at a Solution
First, I want to find the total resistance in the circuit...
< Mentor Note -- thread moved to HH from the technical forums, so no HH Template is shown >
a) Using the Yenka (or similar) simulator, you are required to build an RS flip-flop using 2 NAND gates, switches, LEDs and 330Ω resistors. Test the circuit and prove its correct operation against the...
Homework Statement
Coaxial cable has radius a of copper core and radius b of copper shield. Between there is an isolator with specific resistance ζ. What is the resistance of this cable with length L between the core and the shield?
Homework Equations
First, I tried to solve this like this...