# Does electrical conduction require energy state changes?

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1. Oct 9, 2015

### ddesaneis

Molecules do not use magnetic energy as latent heat - adding magnetic energy does not cause a phase change. If electrical conduction indeed required energy state changes, then during electrical conduction, a change of energy state would likely consume magnetic energy as latent heat, instead of storing magnetic energy itself.

Conversion of latent heat energy back into magnetic energy would require another change of energy state. A CLOSED circuit and a galvanic reaction could cause the first energy state change. A conductive molecule is not a galvanic cell and a closed circuit might not exist at the time of the second change of state.

Logically, continuous current within a superconductor would require continuously changing energy states. This is unlikely, because the time required for energy state changes is less than time within stable energy states. Logically, the only energy state changes that could carry current would be those within an electrical current path.

Note: In theory, if no external energy entered a (isolated) molecule, then a combination of the conservation of energy law and the Pauli Exclusion Principle should prevent quantized electron orbital energy changes. Magnetic energy does not supply the latent heat for orbital energy state changes.

Superconductivity requires that vibration does NOT completely separate any 2 molecules within a superconductive path. Otherwise, the vacuum between the 2 molecules would prevent the path from being superconductive.

By extrapolation, for a single galvanic cell reaction, a gap between 2 molecules within a current path through a galvanic cell's external circuit would be an OPEN CIRCUIT. An electrical path w/o gaps can be a superconductive path.

If a galvanic reaction releases magnetic energy to a superconductor, the galvanic reaction will (afterwards) remove the galvanic electron, w/o removing any magnetic energy within the superconductor.

If magnetism indeed required this electron, then magnetic energy would only be available at the location of the electron. Each molecule that contains the electron would have high current (E = 1/2 LI^2) through the single molecule's (high) resistance, which would (theoretically) rapidly convert the magnetic energy into thermal energy.

Too much magnetic energy within a superconductor could cause quench (a break in a current path). Therefore, (logically) a galvanic cell's output of magnetic energy to an electrical circuit path will stress the current path, instead of triggering formation of a current path w/o a vacuum gap between molecules.

Logically, if a gap between molecules within a (single) superconductive path occurs, the entire amount of magnetic energy within the path (0.356eV) would convert into electrostatic energy. That amount of energy within a molecule size capacitor would cause voltage breakdown. In practice, current within a conductor will produce a voltage gradient along the length of the conductor.

This spread of electrostatic energy within a conductor is similar to the spread of electricity within an insulator, from the triboelectric effect (walking on a rug). In practice, electrostatic energy from a shoe/floor molecule can create a voltage gradient that is the length of a person (almost instantly). If the electrostatic energy did not quickly spread, then the shoe/floor molecule would produce a local hot spot.

The spread of electrostatic energy from the triboelectric effect is not via magnetism. Magnetism w/ low loss requires a conductor and current would flow along the shortest path available within the conductor.

2. Oct 14, 2015

### Greg Bernhardt

Thanks for the post! This is an automated courtesy bump. Sorry you aren't generating responses at the moment. Do you have any further information, come to any new conclusions or is it possible to reword the post?

3. Oct 15, 2015

### 256bits

Not sure what you are discussing, but is it this?
The magnetocaloric effect used for refrigeration which involves a phase change in the material.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_refrigeration

more,
http://article.sapub.org/10.5923.j.materials.20130305.01.html

4. Oct 17, 2015

### ddesaneis

The discussion was about electrical conduction. Electrical current within a superconductor does not produce magnetocaloric effects, because electrical conduction the current does not change the superconductor's temperature.

Notes:
If adding magnetism caused Ga to gain (thermal) energy, then removing the magnetism should release the thermal energy to the environment. Removing magnetism can cause Ga to become cooler (an endothermic reaction).

In order to produce an endothermic reaction (remove energy from the environment), magnetism must remove energy (from the Ga).

Logically, it takes as much energy to cool as it does to heat material. Therefore, adding magnetic energy performs the work required to lower the energy of Ga.

Magnetism's performs work on Ga by means of force X distance. Magnetism applies force on a dipole. Movement of the dipole performs the work of removing (crystal structure) energy from gallium.

During electrical conduction, magnetic fields do not oppose each other and conductive materials do not necessarily contain dipoles.