Let's say I have a metal object sealed within an insulator (let's say glass for fun), and I give it a negative net charge. How would the system go about returning to equilibrium? I understand that the insulator would not be prefect, but anything else I should know? Also, would the system rapidly or slowly return to equilibrium? Estimated time per some unit of charge would be appreciated, but a general answer is all I really need. Last question (for now :P ), would there be a significant accumulation of atoms with a net positive charge on the outside of the insulator with time? (Which is why the metal is not net positive, since it would be easier for electrons to accumulate on the outside of the insulator for a number of reasons).