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I am looking to the Rayleigh-Jeans law derivation. In order to calculare the average energy of the independent modes of the EM field in the cavity the equipartition of energy is used. In this way, the average energy of a single mode is found to be <E>=kT.

I ask you which are the two degrees of freedom of an independent mode of an EM field, and (equivalently, I suppose) why such modes can be viewed as harmonic oscillators.

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# Equipartition of energy in Rayleigh-Jeans law

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