When we deal with heat capacity or specific heat capacity Q=mc(delta temperature) why don't we take into consideration about the expansion of the thing? Since expansion (should) increase the potential energy of the item since potential energy is the bond strength which is related to the particle distance. Then why when a salt water is boiled, the boiling point is 101.4 degrees but when the thermometer reads the temperature of the vapour, it drops down to 100? Shouldn't it be higher than that? When designing a frying pan, is it best to have a black surface on both sides so that it can absorb a lot of heat and also emit a lot of heat onto the food? But if I want to keep the food warm for a long time without a heat source, then a silver one is better as it will not absorb the heat so quickly? Thanks for the help!