How is electric potential manipulated in batteries? Why do some batteries have a rating of 1.5v and others have ratings of 1.25v? I'm not looking for the answer of "its the materials used in the chemical reaction" because I know that.WHAT DO THESE MATERIALS DO DIFFERENTLY TO THE PHYSICS OF THE BATTERY (charge, distance, work, etc. )? I've learned that electric potential and potential energy rely entirely on position. For example the formula from electric potential energy is F * d and force is (kQq)/d^2 meaning that potential energy is (kQq)/d. Does this mean that a battery that has its anodes and cathodes closer together has a higher voltage rating compared to one is very long? Please answer in detail and again I don't want the "it's the materials used in the chemical reaction" answer to this question. That's not what I'm looking for because I already know that. Thanks for your help.