I have two questions: I have often heard physicists such as Victor J. Stenger argue that life could evolve and thrive in universes with physical constants vastly different than our own. I am curious to know what kind of universes these physicists propose. Can physical constants counterbalance each other to form stable universes i.e. weak gravity being countered by a stronger value of other forces? Secondly, are stars necessary for the creation of complex elements which will form the backbone of life? Consider a universe where instead of stars forming, the only structure that forms is a molecular cloud filled with gas or plasma. Here, gravity is strong enough for molecules to bind but stars do not form or are very weak. The only molecules that exist are hydrogen, helium and perhaps a few other elements such as carbon. Despite this, self-replicating molecules form from the sheer number of atoms interacting with each other over time. Are life-harboring universes such as this conceivable?