Non-spatial resolution of quanta (split off from "Local realism ruled out?") I have taken the liberty of creating a new thread since this sub-discussion in Local realism ruled out? had diverged a bit from the OP. You distinguish two isomorphic things by distinct values of their observables, or in the case of coherent bosonic composites, you needn't distinguish them to count them. It comes down to whether all observables are space-time observables which I point out is not the case. We can consider lepton-number or weak isospin or strong color. I can for example discuss a pair creation event and distinguish either by the one going this-away vs going that-away (invoking spatial degrees of freedom) or I can distinguish the one with positive charge vs the one with negative charge. Yes eventually I must observe that charge with a device possessing spatio-temporal qualities. That isn't the issue. The issue is this: In factoring the system of e.g. anti-correlated electron-positron pair. I can speak of the electron and likewise the positron each of which being in a superposition of "this-away" vs. "that-away" spatial motion. OR I can speak of the "this-away" particle as in a superposition of being an electron vs a positron and likewise the "that-away" particle. I may use either momentum or charge as the observable I use to speak of and distinguish components using "the". Neither of these (nor the continuum of admixtures of ways in between) is more or less valid and each is a different "reality model" of the composite as a pair of components. Remember "superposition" isn't a system property, it is a frame relationship. We choose one basis (eigen-basis of a given non-degenerate observable) and then prepare a system by assuring a distinct value of that observable. Choosing a different basis yields that "non-superposition" system now as a superposition. That then carries into resolving components of a composite system via various distinct values of common observables, said observables needn't necessarily be position, or momentum. Reality is relative in QM and the choice of how to factor is no different from a choice of inertial frame (time axis) for observers in SR. I struggle here in part because e.g. QM is fundamentally time based, as relativistic QFT is fundamentally space-time based. Indeed there is the classic fiber-bundle structures in each case and "based" has literal meaning. But fiber-bundles indicate non-stable non-semi-simple choices of description. SR transformed the space fibers over time base into a unified space-time. To unify gauge and space and time we must go beyond field theories which are inherently fibrated. To say what I am trying to say more clearly probably will require a different language than QM or QFT,... say a language of quantized events (not necessarily localized in space-time) rather than of quantum systems (persisting over time). Heck, Feynman diagrams are almost such a language already.