Dismiss Notice
Join Physics Forums Today!
The friendliest, high quality science and math community on the planet! Everyone who loves science is here!

Only mammals have antibodies?

  1. Jan 17, 2012 #1
    i was told that only mammals have(can produce by their own) antibody...
    then how abt other animals like reptile,bird n fish??
    without antibody,how can those animals protect themselves against diseases??
     
  2. jcsd
  3. Jan 17, 2012 #2
  4. Jan 17, 2012 #3

    Andy Resnick

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Education Advisor
    2016 Award

  5. Jan 17, 2012 #4

    Ygggdrasil

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor

  6. Jan 17, 2012 #5

    Andy Resnick

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Education Advisor
    2016 Award

    Good question- I'm not an expert. The Nature article states "Plants, unlike mammals, lack mobile defender cells and a somatic adaptive immune system." I couldn't decipher all the pathways discussed.

    http://www.stanford.edu/class/mi104/Plant immunity.pdf

    I'm thinking about the 'systemic acquired resistance', if that is a reasonable analog.
     
  7. Jan 17, 2012 #6

    atyy

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor

    Last edited: Jan 17, 2012
  8. Jan 17, 2012 #7

    Pythagorean

    User Avatar
    Gold Member

    it would make sense that they are restricted to vertebrates. Antibodies are white blood cells, which are derived form bone marrow cells. Anything non animals would probably be a case of convergent evolution, wouldn't it?

    I guess a non-vertebrate (chordate) could have the same cells, I'm not really sure at what point in the "dividing line" the cells actually originated.
     
  9. Jan 17, 2012 #8

    atyy

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor

    Wow, yes - there are invertebrates with antibodies. Googling turns up http://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20040830/wilson.html: "Sharks are the most primitive animals known to have antibodies"!
     
  10. Jan 17, 2012 #9

    Pythagorean

    User Avatar
    Gold Member

    aren't sharks vertebrates?
     
  11. Jan 17, 2012 #10

    bobze

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Gold Member

    Yes they belong to the phylum chordata> subphylum vertebrata.

    Vertebrates are chordates (notochords) with back"bones" that persist through life. In sharks, skates and rays however this is composed of cartilage, not bone.
     
  12. Jan 17, 2012 #11

    atyy

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor

    Ooops, yes. So in fact antibodies are restricted to vertebrates.
     
  13. Jan 27, 2012 #12
    I was just reading about certain proteins that exist in the human eye which are potent antibacterials. I'm sure there are plenty of options in nature for fighting off illnesses besides antibodies. Really interesting stuff!
     
  14. Jan 28, 2012 #13

    bobze

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Gold Member

    In deed, the most potent antimicrobials actually come from microbes themselves (a couple billion years of microbe on microbe violence--They have developed biological ways to kill each other that make our technology for harm and genocide look paltry! :wink:). Antibiotics for example!
     
  15. Jan 28, 2012 #14

    Mech_Engineer

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Gold Member

    I hear alligator blood may be a source of new super-antibiotics:

    http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/04/080407-alligator-blood.html

     
  16. Jan 31, 2012 #15
  17. Sep 11, 2013 #16
    many prokaryotes also have adaptive immune system. But, they provides RNA-guided destruction of foreign genetic material. And the process is distinct from RNA interference (RNAi).

    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v482/n7385/full/nature10886.html
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 6, 2017
  18. Sep 11, 2013 #17

    SteamKing

    User Avatar
    Staff Emeritus
    Science Advisor
    Homework Helper

    Well, antibiotic drugs like penicillin were developed from certain species of fungi, as are the sporin compounds used in topical antiseptic ointments. (Neosporin, e.g.)
     
  19. Sep 11, 2013 #18
    While this is true, it's a different mechanism than immune responses which, at least in humans, is primarily mediated by protein antibodies produced by B cell lymphocytes as well as by T cell based activity. Beta lactam drugs such as penicillin derivatives work by interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis. These are specifically bacteriocidal chemical agents rather than immunologic mechanisms.
     
    Last edited: Sep 12, 2013
  20. Sep 11, 2013 #19
    Most of the animal kingdom likely has an innate immune system (Uncovering the evolutionary history of innate immunity: the simple metazoan Hydra uses epithelial cells for host defence. [Dev Comp Immunol. 2009] - PubMed - NCBI -- body-surface cells)

    But only vertebrates have an adaptive immune system, one that can learn to respond to specific organisms. That's the kind of immune system that makes antibodies proper, though innate systems can make antibody-like molecules. Not just mammals make them, but also other land vertebrates and fish (The fight between the teleost fish immune response and aquatic viruses. [Mol Immunol. 2010] - PubMed - NCBI -- I found several papers on antibodies made by chickens, turtles, and frogs).
     
  21. Sep 12, 2013 #20

    Curious3141

    User Avatar
    Homework Helper

    Antibodies are not white blood cells, they are not cells at all. They are proteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and they are produced by certain classes of white blood cells called B lymphocytes and plasma cells.
     
Know someone interested in this topic? Share this thread via Reddit, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook




Similar Discussions: Only mammals have antibodies?
  1. Antibody Staining (Replies: 6)

  2. IGE antibodies (Replies: 1)

  3. IgD [antibody] (Replies: 1)

Loading...