Citations to read: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pasc.html#pp (Pascals Principle) http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pasc.html#hpress (Hydraulic Press) http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pflu.html#fp (Static Fluid Pressure) I find the Hyperphysics pages much easier to understand, so apologies if you wanted Wikipedia citations. My conceptual problems Mathematically pascals principle is easy to work with, I dont have much of a problem there, also the hydraulic press principle mathematics is fine by me. The main problem is the actual principle itself, I can accept it, but find difficulties, on the "Static Fluid Pressure" citation above one of the diagrams has a small narrow tube exherting a pressure pgh on the large water resivoir below it, this causes an increase in pressure that would be the same with any size of tube above it as pgh is independant of diameter. My main problem with it is how the pressure exherted by a narrow stopper, or narrow tube also cause the large basin or bottle below it to have the same Increased pressure, its a purely conceptual problem for me, I'm doing small diagrams of the same thing (narrow tube,with large resivoir below it) and I calculate the downward force of the narrow tube acting on the large resivoir as say, 98N for a 1cm C.S. Area 1m High tube, but the overall force of the fluid below it (lets say, with 10 times the area) would be 980N. Could somone please help put it into a nice perspective for me, I know it seems silly, but I refuse to commit anything to long term memory until I'm 100% certain of any questions that I may be asked about it (I tutor lower year students/pupils, and it seems like a pretty valid question, an anacdote to explain it to them would be wonderful, but if I personally cant visualise it, I'm skrewed). One of the ways I thought of it, would be like getting a similar shaped steel piston, and exherting a force of 98N down the shaft with my arms, then it would end up exherting a force of 980N on the large side (clearly wouldnt happen) which is where my conceptual confusion comes from, that such a small initial force can make labiathon sized forces in theory.