1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data A fish is 60 cm under water. A bird directly overhead looks at the fish. If the bird is 120 cm above the water level, find the apparent position of the fish as seen by the bird. The question is solved by using the principles of refraction. But, if the bird is directly overhead, there should be no bending of the light rays. Then why do we use refraction here?