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Reliability of substation configuration

  1. Feb 28, 2010 #1
    hi!.

    anyone here who have an idea on how to assess the reliability of a ring bus system over an open loop/ radial system?

    the ring bus is composed of three load bus connected together.


    thank you
     
  2. jcsd
  3. Mar 2, 2010 #2
    Bus configurations are an important aspect of substation reliability, operational flexibility, and cost.

    Single Bus, Single Breaker configurations:

    This is the simplest bus arrangement, a single bus and all connections directly to one bus.
    Reliability of the single bus configuration is low: even with proper relay protection, a single bus failure on the main bus or between the main bus and circuit breakers will cause an outage of the entire facility.
    With respect to maintenance of switching devices, an outage of the line they are connected to is required. Furthermore, for a bus outage the entire facility must be de-energized. This requires standby generation or switching loads to adjacent substations, if available, to minimize outages of loads supplied from this type of facility.
    Cost of a single bus arrangement is relatively low, but also is the operational flexibility; for example, transfer of loads from one circuit to another would require additional switching devices outside the substation.
    Line connections to a single bus arrangement are normally straight forward, since all lines are connected to the same main bus. Therefore, lines can be connected on the main bus in areas closest to the direction of the departing line, thus mitigating lines crossing outside the substation.
    Due to the low reliability, significant efforts when performing maintenance, and low operational flexibility, application of the single bus configuration should be limited to facilities with low load levels and low availability requirements.
    Since single bus arrangement is normally just the initial stage of a substation development, when laying out the substation a designer should consider the ultimate configuration of the substation, such as where future supply lines, transformers, and bus sections will be added. As loads increase, substation reliability and operational abilities can be improved with step additions to the facility, for example, a bus tie breaker to minimize load dropped due to bus outages.

    Ring Bus configurations:

    As the name implies, all breakers are arranged in a ring with circuits connected between two breakers.
    From a reliability standpoint, this arrangement affords increased reliability to the circuits, since with properly operating relay protection, a fault on one bus section will only interrupt the circuit on that bus section and a fault on a circuit will not affect any other device.
    Protective relaying for a ring bus will involve more complicated design and, potentially, more relays to protect a single circuit. Keep in mind that bus and switching devices in a ring bus must all have the same ampacity, since current flow will change depending on the switching device’s operating position.
    From a maintenance point of view, the ring bus provides good flexibility. A breaker can be maintained without transferring or dropping load, since one of the two breakers can remain in-service and provide line protection while the other is being maintained. Similarly, operating a ring bus facility gives the operator good flexibility since one circuit or bus section can be isolated without impacting the loads on another circuit. Cost of the ring bus arrangement can be more expensive than a single bus, main bus and transfer, and the double bus–single breaker schemes since two breakers are required for each circuit, even though one is shared.
    The ring bus arrangement is applicable to loads where reliability and availability of the circuit is a high priority. There are some disadvantages of this arrangement:
    (a) a ‘‘stuck breaker’’ event could cause an outage of the entire substation depending on the number of breakers in the ring,
    (b) Expansion of the ring bus configuration can be limited due to the number of circuits that are physically feasible in this arrangement, and
    (c) Circuits into a ring bus to maintain a reliable configuration can cause extensive bus and line work. For example, to ensure service reliability, a source circuit and a load circuit should always be next to one another. Two source circuits adjacent to each other in a stuck breaker event could eliminate all sources to the station. Therefore, a low-profile ring bus can command a lot of area.


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  4. Mar 4, 2010 #3
    msj.. thank you for the info..

    regards
     
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