1.Let R be a ring such that Z ⊂ R ⊂ Q. Show that R is a principal ideal domain. We show that Z is a principal ideal domain, so every ideal in Z which is also in R is principal. But I'm not sure how to use that R is contained in Q. 2. Proof that X^4+1 is reducible in Z/pZ [X] for every prime p. I have no clue for this one at all. Could anyone please offer some insights to either of the above problems? Any help is greatly appreciated!