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Second order non homogeneous diff. equation at constant coefficients

  • Thread starter Telemachus
  • Start date
  • #1
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Hi there. I had some trouble trying to solve this:

[tex]y''+y=\cos x +3\sin 2x[/tex] (1)

At first I just found the solution for the homogeneous equation:
[tex]y_h=e^{\lambda x} \rightarrow \lambda^2+1=0 \rightarrow \lambda_1,\lambda_2=\pm i[/tex]

Then [tex]y_h=C_1\cos x+ C_2 \sin x[/tex]

So I've tried to find the particular solution. I thought I should suggest an equation like:
[tex]y_p=A\cos x +b\sin x+ C\cos 2x +D\sin 2x[/tex]
[tex]y_p'=-A\sin x +B\cos x - 2C\sin 2x + 2D\cos 2x[/tex]
[tex]y_p''=-A\cos x -B\sin x - 4C\cos 2x - 4D\sin 2x[/tex]
But then, when I've tried to find the undetermined coefficients for [tex]y_p[/tex] coefficients replacing in (1):

[tex]-A\cos x -B\sin x - 4C\cos 2x - 4D\sin 2x+A\cos x +b\sin x+ C\cos 2x +D\sin 2x=\cos x +3\sin x \rightarrow -3C\cos 2x -3D\sin 2x=cos(x)+3\sin 2x[/tex]
Then A=0,B=0,C=0 and D=-1.

So the general solution should be
[tex]y(x)=y_h+y_p=C_1\cos x+ C_2 \sin x-\sin 2x[/tex]
But with wolfram alpha I've corroborated my solution is wrong: y''+y=cos(x)+3 sin(2x) - Wolfram|Alpha

So, where is the mistake and how should I do this?

I think I've found unless one mistake, just noted it. I should use [tex]y_p=Ax \cos x +B x \sin x + C\sin 2x+ D\cos 2x[/tex] instead of [tex]y_p=A\cos x +b\sin x+ C\cos 2x +D\sin 2x[/tex], because the first two terms are linearly dependent with the homogeneous solution, right?
 
Last edited:

Answers and Replies

  • #2
33,646
5,313
For your particular solution, try
[tex]y_p=Ax\cos x +Bx\sin x[/tex]

The problem here is that cos(x) and sin(x) are solutions of the homogeneous version of your differential equation, so a particular solution (of the nonhomogeneous equation) can't include either of these functions.
 
  • #3
832
30
right, I've made a mistake in (1) that I've just corrected, it was 2x for the sine instead of x. Shouldn't I add some more terms for the particular solution corresponding to the part of the equality of [tex]3\sin 2x[/tex]?
 
  • #4
33,646
5,313
For this nonhomogeneous equation,
[tex]y''+y=\cos x +3\sin 2x[/tex]

try this for your particular solution,
[tex]y_p=Ax\cos x +Bx\sin x + C\cos 2x + D\sin 2x[/tex]
 
  • #5
832
30
Thank you Mark :)
 
  • #6
33,646
5,313
De nada...

I didn't go into any detail about why I chose the functions I did. For relatively simple nonhomogenous, constant coefficient, linear differential equations, the concept of annihilators provides some insight into the choices for the particular solutions.

In this thread, https://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=348247, in post #4, I talk about it a bit.
 
  • #7
832
30
Muchas gracias :D
 

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