# Stability of a barge- Fluid Mechanics

1. Oct 9, 2011

### ttb90

1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data

A large barge of overall width 4m to be used at sea has a uniform empty weight per meter length of M=6327.19kg/m (length is into the page). This empty weight is uniformly distributed along the length of the barge. The center of gravity of the empty barge is at position G, 2m above the flat bottom of the vessel. The barge has a rectangular water-line area and the density of seawater is 1025 kg/m^3. Neglect the thickness of the hull.

Ballast of mass Mb kg per meter length is added to the barge in order to effect the stability. The weight of the ballast acts at point A (on the barge centerline at the bottom of the hull) and is uniformly distributed along the length of the barge. The addition of the ballast will shift the center of gravity from G to G (prime). Write out an expression for the height of the new center of gravity above the bottom of the hull in terms of Mb (distance AG(prime))

2. Relevant equations

I know that the key word in the question is 'acting on point A'. Adding Mb will shift G to G(prime) however G(prime) is lower than G. Because the weight was added below and not above.

I am aware that i need to use moments to find G (prime) but am not sure how to start it off..Really stuck

3. The attempt at a solution

I have found the draft value of h=1.5432m.
m of barge= 6327.19 kg
length (l) of barge =1m
width= 4m
ρ= 1025kg/m^3

For equilibrium, buoyancy force= 6327.19g
volume of displaced seawater V=wxhxl= 4xhx1=4h
If we equate the two equations above we get h= 1.5432m..
This value is calculated for G not sure if it stays the same when we have G (prime)??
1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data

2. Relevant equations

3. The attempt at a solution

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2. Oct 9, 2011

### SteamKing

Staff Emeritus
The location of G is given as 2 m above the bottom of the barge, and this is for the empty barge. If Mb of ballast is added with a center of gravity of zero meters above the bottom of the barge, what is the height of the c.g. of the barge and ballast together?

3. Oct 9, 2011

### ttb90

If you look at the attached diagram it shows the height from point A to the new center of gravity to be h.. That's the value I found in the above calculations which is, h=1.5432m

4. Oct 9, 2011

### SteamKing

Staff Emeritus
I think you are misreading the figure attached with the problem. The height of G for the empty barge is 2 m above the bottom of the barge. You are asked to find out how much ballast to add to the barge so that G', the center of gravity of the barge with ballast, will produce a stable condition. The value of G' may not necessarily be equal to the draft h.

5. Oct 10, 2011

### db725

Hi SteamKing, just realized that you are completely right. I assumed the height stayed the same but the G' has moved so h is probably not equal to the draft h.. Because the question specifically asks 'write the expression for the height of the new center of gravity above the bottom of the hull in terms of Mb(distance AG')) i have no idea how to obtain this. Any starting points you would recommend?

6. Oct 10, 2011

### SteamKing

Staff Emeritus
The height of the center of gravity of the empty barge plus ballast can be found by writing the vertical moment equation, using point A as the reference.

7. Oct 10, 2011

### db725

Definitions:
Mb=mass of ballast
M= mass of barge (empty)=6327.19kg

0=ƩMa=-(AG' X (M+Mb)+(AG X M)
since we know that AG=2m;
0=ƩMa=-(AG' X (M+Mb)+(2 x M)

The negative sign is due to the anticlockwise moment

0=ƩMa=-(AG' X (6327.19+Mb)+(2 x 6327.19)
AG'(6327.19+Mb)=12654.38
therefore Ag'=12654.38/(6327.19+Mb)

is this right?

8. Oct 10, 2011

### SteamKing

Staff Emeritus
Looks good.

9. Oct 10, 2011

### db725

Also i have started doing the next question and it asks: 'Write out an expression for the height of the center of buoyancy above the bottom of the hull (the distance AB), again in terms of Mb.

For this question I though that the draft h value must be different from part (i) as we have added Mb on point A. However this makes things complicated, how do we know if B changed or not.. It is not marked on the diagram. Does this mean it stays the same and we just recalculate the new h value and assume its half way through the new h value?

10. Oct 10, 2011

### ttb90

That's how i did mine as well. Took a while to get the answer. I am stuck with this new buoyancy B though, do we assume it stays at the same point after the MB is added to point A. What exactly changes here?

11. Oct 10, 2011

### SteamKing

Staff Emeritus
When ballast is added, the barge will sink. In order to find the new position of B, the draft of the ballasted barge is required. In general, when the displacement of a vessel changes, the location of the center of buoyancy changes as well.

12. Oct 10, 2011

### ttb90

Does that mean that when I do find the draft of the ballasted barge we assume that the new position of B is still halfway of the new draft value? Is this assumption correct?

13. Oct 10, 2011

### ttb90

SteamKing: This is following I did to find the new position of B.

For the height of the center of buoyancy above the bottom of the hull i did the following.

Volume of displaced water= V= 4 x h x 1= 4h
The weight of the displaced seawater = (6327.19+Mb)g =ρ x g x4h

Therefore h= (6327.19+Mb)g/(ρxgx4)= (6327.19+Mb)/4100

However the distance AB= (1/2)x((6327.19+Mb)/4100)=(6327.19+Mb)/8200

The reason I divided it by 1/2 is because the new buoyancy point must be located half way through the new draft value.

Are my calculations correct?

14. Oct 10, 2011

### SteamKing

Staff Emeritus
The calculation of B is correct, although you are actually multiplying by 1/2 instead of dividing.

15. Oct 11, 2011

### ttb90

Thanks very much for that.

There is now a change of scenario and I attached it as figure 2.

Question states that 'If the total ballast acting at point A is now increased to 3000 kg/m, what is the maximum mass of cargo per unit length Mc that could be safely carried at position C with the barge still stable?'

In this question do we use a similar approach before in using the stability formula? What's the best way to solve this problem?

#### Attached Files:

• ###### Figure 2.png
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16. Oct 11, 2011

### SteamKing

Staff Emeritus
The procedure is similar. Write a vertical moment equation and find the new height of the c.g. of the loaded barge. Determine the new draft for the loaded barge and calculate B.
Io depends only on the shape of the waterplane. With the new locations for B and G', evaluate GM.

17. Oct 11, 2011

### ttb90

So I'm finding this last section really hard to start off. This is what I have done so far:

Mb=3000kg
M= mass of barge (empty)=6327.19kg
g=9.81
Mc= mass of cargo
ρ=1025kgm^(-3)

I struggled to find the moment equation so i started off by doing the following:

1. New draft for the load barge
Volume of displaced water= V= 4xhx1= 4h
The weight of the displaced water= (M+Mb+Mc)g=ρg(4h)
(9327.19+Mc)g=ρg(4h)
h=(9327.19+Mc)/4100

New location of B, has to be located half way between the new draft h

So the new distance of AB= (1/2)x(9327.19+Mc)/4100=(9327.19+Mc)/(8200)

CG'=AC-AG'
AG' was found in the previous sections to be = 12654.38/(6327.19+Mb)
Substituting our new Mb value gives , AG' =1.3567

CG'=4-1.3567=2.6433 m

Vsubmerged= 4 x 1 x h= (9327.19+Mc)/1025

BG'(bar)= CG'+AB = 2.6433+(9327.19+Mc)/(8200)

Therefore using G'M(bar)= Io/(V submerged) - BG'(bar)
= 5.333/((9327.19+Mc)/1025) -(2.6433+(9327.19+Mc)/(8200))

For the maximum I was thinking of using calculus but not sure if that is possible to use on this?? or if there is a better way ?

Not sure if what I have done is right for this question,very confused... didn't use moments as you said earlier because i was getting confused with all the different variables.. Am I on the wrong track?

18. Oct 12, 2011

### SteamKing

Staff Emeritus
The vertical moment of a mass is this:
moment of mass = mass times (distance of c.g. of mass from point A)

The total vertical moment = sum of the vertical moments of the individual masses

To find the maximum amount of cargo, calculus is not required. The minimum stability is G'M = 0. Solve for Mc.

19. Oct 12, 2011

### ttb90

Definitions:
Mb=mass of ballast
M= mass of barge (empty)=6327.19kg

0=ƩMa=-(AG' X (M+Mb)+(AG X M)
since we know that AG=2m;
0=ƩMa=-(AG' X (M+Mb)+(2 x M)

The negative sign is due to the anticlockwise moment
M=mass of barge = 6327.19 kg
Mb=mass of ballast = 3000 kg
Mc=mass of cargo
Distance of C from A: 4 m

0=ƩMa: -(AG' x g x(M+Mb+Mc))+(AG x M x g)+(4 x Mc x g)
AG'(6327.19+3000+Mc)=(2 x 6327.19) + (4 x Mc)
AG'(9327.19+Mc)=12654.38 + 4Mc
AG' =(12654.38 + 4Mc)/(9327.19+Mc)

Volume of displaced water= V=4 x h x 1= 4h
For equilibrium buoyancy force = (3000+6327.19+Mc)=9327.19+ Mc
Thus the weight of displaced seawater= (9327.19+Mc)xg=ρxgx(4h)
h=(9327.19+Mc)/(4100)

the distance AB is halfway between h (new draft), AB =((9327.19+Mc)/8200)

BG'(bar)= AG'-AB
= (12654.38 + 4Mc)/(9327.19+Mc) - ((9327.19+Mc)/8200)
Io=5.333
Vsubmerged= 4 x h x 1=4 x (9327.19+Mc)/(4100)=(9327.19+Mc)/1025

G'M= 5.33/((9327.19+Mc)/1025) - [(12654.38 + 4Mc)/(9327.19+Mc) - ((9327.19+Mc)/8200)]

When i tried to solve this, G'M=0 and I couldn't because I had a few root problems where it clashed with the Mc value.