# What is Structural: Definition and 233 Discussions

A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized. Material structures include man-made objects such as buildings and machines and natural objects such as biological organisms, minerals and chemicals. Abstract structures include data structures in computer science and musical form. Types of structure include a hierarchy (a cascade of one-to-many relationships), a network featuring many-to-many links, or a lattice featuring connections between components that are neighbors in space.

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1. ### How to get the structural formula of C3H6CI2?

TL;DR Summary: I only know how to solve the C3H6 which is a double bond, is it right or wrong? Reference: https://www.physicsforums.com/forums/chemistry.83/post-thread
2. ### Engineering Struggling with a Structural Analysis Problem?

Diagram of the problem below. I have 45 minutes to finish all parts of this question without reference material. The Mechanics of Materials section of these tests are largely Structural Analysis, which I was not taught to this level in my undergrad degree so I am teaching myself via Youtube...
3. ### A Structural coloration of a zeolite monolayer

I have a monolayer of zeolite crystals on glass with the thickness of the zeolites about 800nm. When I look at the reflection of fluorescent light bulbs on this monolayer, the reflection is white except at specific angles. At around 45 deg, the colour appears red/magenta and at a lower angle...
4. ### Structural Questions about Memory B cells

I have the following doubts regarding B cells. Normally upon the stimulation by a T-cell, the activated B-cell differentiates into plasma and memory cells. 1) What are the structural differences among the naive B-cells, activated B-cells, Plasma B-cells, and memory B-cells? I am interested in...
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### Steel Frame Design for Hanging Egg Chair: Calculating Weight Limitations

Hi, my name is Yuchen and I am a hobby-ist DIY engineer. I have designed a steel frame to hang an egg chair from. I am planning to have it welded but wasn't sure if it will be strong enough. I wanted to use 1/8 inch thick 2 inch by 2 inch square hot rolled carbon steel tube. I am planning to...
6. ### Courses Course choices for a student interested in structural biology

Hey! I'm majoring in biochemistry (interested in MD/PhD), with interests in structural biology, protein dynamics, molecular dynamics, etc. and so I am taking some extra physics and math courses to help supplement my interests and better prepare me for graduate work. Do you guys think two...
7. ### Chemistry Structural isomer boiling points

Why does the isomer C-C-C-N have the highest boiling point, rather than CC(N)C (where the N is attached to the second carbon)? Isn't N able to form 3 H-bonds in both cases? Thanks.
8. ### Engineering Steel Frame Connection: Design and Moment Considerations

Hi All, this is a steel frame , top beams sitting on top of column with steel plate cantilever at both sides (one side longer than the other) , so there will be hogging moment at the center support. However, the top steel beam is one whole piece, does the connection between the steel beam and...
9. ### Construction Homemade tripod tree stump/root puller design

WHAT: I'm designing a simple tree stump puller. It consists of a tripod made of square (or round, if it's easier) steel tubing with a winch at the top. The cable from the winch drops down, attaches to the stump, then pulls the stump upward. DIMENSIONS: The top of the tripod, where the winch...
10. ### Radiation effects/damage in structural alloys and ceramics

I was reading an old thread - Radiation Damage In metals from Gamma rays - https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/radiation-damage-in-metals-from-gamma-rays.826449/ The thread is long dormant and wasn't productive, but based on what I've learned over the last 5 years, I would change my response...
11. ### I Size Effect on Structural Strength

I'm using the wikipedia page on Size Effect to get an understanding of it. It identifies Statistical and Energetic size effects and two types within energetic. I believe I understand statistical, as it seems to essentially say that assuming there's some variation in the material strength, the...
12. ### Structural Systems: Steel and Reinforced Concrete (RC)

I've been looking over precedents for a design project and I noticed that the most commonly used systems are either steel or reinforced concrete structural systems. Is it possible for a steel structural system to be connected to a reinforced concrete structural system? If so, how does it work...
13. ### Statics and Structural Analysis Question

I am able to draw shear and bending moment diagrams. We were never taught how to even start with a problem like this.
14. ### Engineering Finite Element Analysis / Structural Analysis

Hello engineer's community ! I got a problem. If i got a truss frame with 2 bars and an initial nodal displacement for the common node , then how can i calculate the velocity of the oscillation as function of time ? (the 2 bars have different length , same elasticity modulus , same density and...
15. ### Chemistry Structural formulas & optical activity

How do I determine which group is dash (into the page) and which is wedge (out of page)? Won't that literally change which isomer it is? How to determine optical activity then? (I believe that in order for something to be optically active it has to be an enantiomer--a non-superimposable mirror...
16. ### What outer structural materials are suitable for high altitude?

Homework Statement:: n/a Homework Equations:: n/a Hello , I am researching some material science and looking for suitable structural materials for high altitude , low level orbit flight . Would a carbon structure be suitable or would there be pressure problems that cause structural collapse ?
17. ### Engineering Structure Mechanics-Three Pinned/Hinged Arches

The Example 2 at this site ' http://ocw.ump.edu.my/pluginfile.php/1435/mod_resource/content/2/Chapter%205%20%E2%80%93%20Three%20Pinned%20Arch.pdf ' (page 14): It is parabolic hence the equation is y = (x^2)/10. I used the section method between A-D and applied equilibrium of moment to find a...
18. ### Structural FEA - understanding the fundamentals

I am a mechanical an engineer with a few years of experience. Most of the work I do is transient, structural finite element analysis. I have gotten reasonably competent at building models and pumping out results, but I regularly come across gaps in my fundamental knowledge. I have been doing...
19. ### Collapse and deformation of a circle (tube)

Hello: I am looking for a formula that can help me determine the collapse and deformation strengths of plastic tubing. I have been scouring the internet for this information and i have yet to find a satsifactory formula. I have found a formula that seems pretty wide spread ~ however it gives me...
20. ### Nonlinear Structural Analysis with Finite Element Method

Unlike in electromagnetics, the nonlinearity of mechanical structures is not only due to the material property. It could be due to large deformation and contact as well. Even though I will be implementing the existing and popular methods, I am still scared and I feel it is not a job that can be...
21. ### Structural Mechanics Distinction Task

To find axial load , 5m / 6m = 0.83 Arc tangent , tan-1(0.83) = 39.69 Cosine of the force , Cos(39.69) = 0.77 Sine of the force , Sin(39.69) = 0.64 Axial load in the vertical direction , (200kN/m X 6 = 1200kN / 2 = 600kN + self weight of 6kN = 606kN) So 606kN X 0.77 = 466.62kN Axial load in the...
22. ### Structural mechanics: Distributed forces on a structure

Problem Statement: What's your result of ##X_A##? I find mine is different from the standard answer. Relevant Equations: My answer for $$X_A =5 kN$$ Problem Statement: What's your result of ##X_A##? I find mine is different from the standard answer. Relevant Equations: My answer for X_A...
23. ### Object Oriented Programming vs Structural Programming

Hello, I am trying to get my head around the important difference between these two different styles (paradigms) of programming. I am familiar with traditional structural programming: data, variables, functions, structures. The functions are blocks of instructions that can process data, etc...
24. ### Condensed structural formulas - Help please

Hi Guys, I attempted the question below and just need someone to have a look to make sure there are no mistakes. 1. Homework Statement Write condensed structural formulas and the names for three constitutional (i.e. structural) isomers with the molecular formula C7H16. Homework Equations...
25. ### Engineering Fundamentals of Structural Evolution (3)

I am interesting in list of readings of the following basic course. It is offered by UCSB: https://www.materials.ucsb.edu/academics/courses 100C - Fundamentals of Structural Evolution (3) An introduction to the thermodynamic and kinetic principles governing structural evolution in materials...
26. ### Impedance and Structural Grounding

These are typical metal roof in my country.. it's connected to iron c-purlins metal screwed to metal sheets. Our structural plans never have any grounding details of this. I'm just wondering what would happen if a live wire touch it or the I-beam connected to it (because we hang electrical wires...
27. ### Structural query on removing a masonry wall and lintels

My sister recently removed a structural wall in her ground floor apartment and I am very concerned about the workmanship. She trusted her builder to work out the size of the steel lintel which supports a masonry wall on the first floor above and above the first floor - is a standard pitched...
28. ### Connecting Global Communities: Exploring Structural and Geotechnical Engineering

Hi, My name is Oleg, I am a Civil engineering student nearing the completion of my BE. My primary interest lies in Structural engineering, although I am planning to do some geotechnical research in this coming semester (pretty excited about that as well). I have been a bit of a lurker on this...
29. ### Installing an EOT crane in a factory (ceiling clearance issues)

PROS AND CONS OF INSTALLING AN EOT CRANES IN A LIMITED SPACE FACTORY. Capacity of the crane is 10 TON, SPAN is 27.6 meter, 4x10 Ton Cranes for 125 meter bay. The space limit in the factory is 10.5 meters. There is a 9 meter steel post at the center of the factory (part of a machine). The crane...
30. ### Why isn't ClF3 trigonal planar?

I know ClF3 has triagonal bi-pyramidal arrangement and T-shape molecular geometry. (as shown in first diag.). However, it can also be 2nd case. In this one, the shape will be triagonal planar. Also, electrons will be farthest. So why isn't ClF3 like second case?
31. ### I Show that commutativity is a structural property

I am trying to prove that if two groups are isomorphic then one is abelian iff the other is abelian. This is a simple task, but I am a little confused about how to write it up. Suppose that ##\phi : G \to H## is an isomorphism. Let ##a,b \in G##. Then ##ab = ba \implies \phi (a) \phi (b) = \phi...
32. ### Structural Design Homework: Landing Support Analysis

Homework Statement For the first picture , i was told that the landing is supported by the beam . So ,when we are doing the load analysis , the load analysis of the staircase and landing are combined . however , for the second example , the landing is said to be the support . so , when we are...
33. ### Drawing Lewis structure and structural formula

Homework Statement Draw the Lewis structure and structural formula for: a) HCN b) SO3 2- Homework Equations none The Attempt at a Solution Did I do these correctly? Thanks!
34. ### Ansys Workbench Static Structural Analysis

Hello Guys I am New here on the foum Well i am simulating a static structure (Picture attached) on ansys and til now i have a result divergence when i apply different forces. i guess my loads and fixed supports aren't well defined. Please Help i know it s a bit long but please give it some time...
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### Chordwise location of lift for wing structural design

Hi everybody, I'm designing the wing of a new aeromodel and I need a few informations for the structural design of the wing box that I couldn't find in the few litterature I have by now. So, here comes the question... For the sizing of the box beam that will be the main resistant part of the...
36. ### Non-Irridescent Structural Dyes that Don't Fade

Silica around melanin, condensed into larger particles. Many colors available. Short Science News Article/Video. I guess the structures are not planar, so the iridescence does not occur.
37. ### Static structural ansys, rigid body boundary condition

hi guys, i am new user on ansys i have task from my lecturer. it is about static test for seat bus. i try simulate the seat bus on ansys statical structural. you can see my model on attachment (untitle1.png). at that picture, there are 2 bars will push the seat back. the stiffness beahvior of...
38. ### APDL - Transient Structural - Exporting stresses over time

I'm writing my master thesis and need to export forces over time in Transient analysis. I tried using the force reaction but it shows the result as zero. BTW I'm not trying to get the forces from the nodes which is supported, with these i get results. But with the nodes with no support i get...
39. ### 3D Printing of Structural Colors

Browns, Reds, and Blues have been 3D printed (video here) by making very tiny shapes similar to those that underlie the iridescence phenomena. This kind of coloration is in some ways similar to the another favorite of mine (which I would call a structural non-color): Vantablack (Vertically...
40. ### Underground living: Which project idea is better?

Hello, Physics forum community.I have a project for an intro to engineering class in which I must design a system to solve an environmental problem. This class is only an introduction so I'm not sure how detailed and specific our work has to be. I must have been feeling very sci-fi at the time...
41. ### Calculating Beam Sizing for Cargo Transport

Good Day Guys, I need help in checking the beam size required to transport a cargo. What checks do i do? 1. Check actual BM with resisting moment of the beam 2. Check actual shear with the resisting moment of the beam How do i calculate following if I only know the type of beam used, i.e...
42. ### Structural Support Triangles for a rope-climbing robot

sorry if this is in the wrong spot or what not So my school has this robotics club and we need to build a robot to climb a rope as well as do other things. But focusing on the rope climbing I need to design 2 plates that can support the weight of the robot (~150lbs) The plates themselves are...
43. ### Which is better for structural support PVC pipe or plywood?

I'm building a structure that will weigh approximately 200lbs (100kg) but that is only for the shell of the structure. So to support it I want something strong with as little deflection as possible as well as being as light weight as possible and I've narrowed down my options to PVC piping or...
44. ### Help Needed with basic Beam & Structural Calculations

Hello, My name is Molly. I am looking for help with Basic Engineering Calculations and how to understand them. This is not homework and certainly not for anything dangerous or anything I am building. I simply have developed a fascination for the subject and a strong desire to understand the...
45. ### Structural Choromsomal Hierarchies and Gene Expression

There have been occasionally questions/comments about gene control. This should feed the hunger for knowledge. Here is an open access review article: Three-Dimensional Genome Organization and Function in Drosophila. It discusses some not widely known aspects of control of gene expression in...
46. ### What are the options for boundary conditions in ANSYS WB structural analysis?

I am trying to perform a simple simulation in ANSYS WB Mechanical. Description is given below in image, thickness of the plate is 5 mm. Problem is I am unable to decide which type of support should I provide for this.
47. ### Time History Fatigue Analysis - Ansys Static Structural Quer

I'm testing a part for fatigue, and I got a time series of Forces and Moments on three different parts of the body (A wind turbine hub). From the static structural fatigue analysis, I noticed that you need a von mises stress input - that's not a problem. My problem is, how do I place different...
48. ### Programs Structural Engineering/Construction Management Double Major?

So I am currently starting my second year of college and after assessing my interests and abilities I have decided that construction is something that I have a background in and would really enjoy doing, as I am very hands on while also having a curiosity in engineering. Is it practical to...
49. ### I Structural differences between W, WC, and W2C?

In my research group, I'm tasked with determining the purity of a tungsten sample sent from a supplier. Using FIB, we cut a 20 by 20 by 20 micron well into the sample and tested a wall of the well about 10 microns down from the surface. After taking a spectrogram, there seemed to be a large...
50. ### How to Solve Support Reaction (Virtual Work)?

Hey guys, I was revising using some past papers for my structural mechanic module when I realized that I don't know how to do this problem: https://physicsforums-bernhardtmediall.netdna-ssl.com/data/attachments/83/83583-240450b2eac78c09f31d35a531383268.jpg If it was for the deflection of node...