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The number of absolutely true statements

  1. Nov 14, 2003 #1
    there are either infinitely many or none.

    proof:
    it suffices to prove that if there is at least one, then there are infinitely many. suppose there is at least one absolutely true statement.

    absolutely true statement number 2:
    there is at least one absolutely true statement.

    absolutely true statement number 3:
    there are at least two absolutely true statements.

    for n>3, absolutely true statement number n:
    there are at least n-1 absolutely true statements.

    QED
     
  2. jcsd
  3. Nov 14, 2003 #2
    If you say that there are NO absolutlely true statements than that statement is not absolutlely true, implying that you can not know the number of absolutely true statements.

    It is a non-sensical unsupportable argument.
    The lingual equivalent of an optical illusion.
    Such as:
    "This statement is a lie."
     
  4. Nov 14, 2003 #3
    correct.

    note: the statement was this:
    there are either infinitely many or none.

    there was not an effort to claim which one was the actual case.

    if the statement "there are no true statements" leads to a contradiction, then perhaps it is not the case that there are no true statements. then by the above claim, there are infinitely many.

    another way to say that is if logic is not a banality, then there are infinitely many true statements.
     
    Last edited: Nov 14, 2003
  5. Nov 14, 2003 #4
    Good point.
    However, does "undeterminable amount" necessarily equate to "infinitely many"?
     
  6. Nov 14, 2003 #5
    the cardinal number of the set of true statements is alph_null, the same as the cardinal number of the set of natural numbers, the same as the cardinal number of all finite statements in a language with finite alphabet/character set. in that sense, there are as many true statements as there are statements.

    however, this is a rather retarded proof cuz it doesn't give any insightful true statements.
     
    Last edited: Nov 14, 2003
  7. Nov 14, 2003 #6
    Another good point!
     
  8. Nov 14, 2003 #7
    it does give me a bit more faith that it is conceivable that an absolutely true statement can be expressed in language.

    in a book i'm reading, the example was this statement:
    I

    to even say "I am" detracts from the truth slightly in the author's opinion. this is sorta equivalent to "God exists" in the sense that it is of the form "x is." in that sense, the author would have to agree that "God exists" is not absolutely true.

    i have noticed what appears to be a fatal flaw.
    "there is at least one true statement" may be the ONLY true statement. i was assuming that the true statement refered to by what's in the quotes was a statement other than itself. oops.

    wait. if it is the only true statement, then this is also true:
    there are at least two true statements. here they are:
    1. there is one true statement
    2. there is at least one true statement

    but then we have a contradiction between the true statements "there are at least two true statements" and "there is one true statement." this contradiction implies that the assumption "it (there is at least one true statement) is the only true statement" is wrong. therefore, there are at least two true statements.

    one can still progress to infinity.

    either it is the case or it is not the case that the ONLY two true statements are these:
    1. there is at least one true statement
    2. there are at least two true statements

    but if there are only two true statements, then we can add a third one: there are two true statements. having a third one condradicts the assumption that there are only two. therefore, there are at least three true statements.

    suppose n>3.
    if there are only n-1 true statements, we can add an nth true statement: there are n-1 true statements. having an nth one contradicts the assumption that there are only n-1 true statements. therefore there are at least n true statements.

    run this through for all n and you've got infinitely many very uninsightful true statements.

    i think you can also prove there are infinitely many false statements. let A be any statement. then A&notA is false. since there are infinitely many statements, there are infinitely many false statements.
     
    Last edited: Nov 14, 2003
  9. Nov 14, 2003 #8

    Another God

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    I'd need to spend a lot more time thinking about this before I could say something for certain....but the first thing that has occured to me is "Is it not possible that you hzve focussed way too much on language (words, statements...etc) and completely missed the point of logic only really meaning something when applied to reality?"

    I mean, 'there are at least n true statements' doesn't mean anything outside of hte language it is spoken in, and language isn't really a thing: it is a system of representing things. Don't confuse the things being represented, with the stuff doing the representing (the words).
     
  10. Nov 14, 2003 #9
    that was you 666th post. how cool!

    one comment. there is a map:
    words in language A <---> meaning <---> words in language B

    assuming that the meaning in question is expressible in both language A and language B, it's the same meaning independent of language. at least, independent of languages that can express that meaning.

    it may be the case that a statement is absolutely true IF AND ONLY IF it occurs on the list of statements i gave earlier. in that case, the meaning of the statements is almost nil, if not completely banal.

    another direction.
    if i replace 'there are at least n true statements' with any statement, don't your comments still apply? i guess i'm saying i don't buy the statement that it doesn't mean anything outside of hte language it is spoken in.
     
  11. Nov 14, 2003 #10
    Hi phoenixthoth,

    When we can say "there is at least one true statement" I think we automatically in some induction system where the above sentence is the first object, and our own cognition is the induction's engine, which has the property of self reference cybernetic system.

    Any event in such a system is "no event" or "infinitely many events".

    In any research, the relations between the object and the subject and their properties, can't be ignored.

    What do you think?
     
    Last edited: Nov 14, 2003
  12. Nov 14, 2003 #11
    Here is a great circle...
    "There is not a single true statement" If this is true then of course it is not.

    John
     
  13. Nov 14, 2003 #12
    If "There is not a single true statement" it implies that "" XOR "there are infinitely many true statements" XOR "there are finitely many true statements".

    But what about a non-Boolean logic?

    In non-Boolean logic there can exist simultaneously two opposite states like:

    A) "there is at least one absolutely true statement".

    B) "there are infinitely many true statements".


    In this case we can get a complementary object, which is the result of an association between infinitely many (points-like) singletons {.,.,.,.,.} and a one continuous (line-like) element {________}.

    Through this point of view, there are connections between structure's symmetry-degree and information's clarity-degree.

    High Entropy means maximum level of redundancy and uncertainty, which are based on the highest symmetry-degree of some system.

    For example let us say that there is a piano with 3 notes and we call it 3-system :

    DO=D , RE=R , MI=M

    The highest Entropy level of 3-system is the most left information's-tree, where each key has no unique value of its own, and vice versa.
    Code (Text):
     
    <-Redundancy->
        M   M   M  ^<----Uncertainty
        R   R   R  |    R   R
        D   D   D  |    D   D   M       D   R   M
       {.,  .,  .} v   {.,  .,  .}     {.,  .,  .}
        |   |   |       |   |   |       |   |   |
    3 = |   |   |      {|___|_} |      {|___|}  |
        |   |   |       |       |       |       |
       {|___|___|_}    {|_______|}     {|_______|}
        |               |               |    
     
    An example of 4-notes piano:

    DO=D , RE=R , MI=M , FA=F
    Code (Text):

    ------------>>>

        F  F  F  F           F  F           F  F
        M  M  M  M           M  M           M  M
        R  R  R  R     R  R  R  R           R  R     R  R  R  R
        D  D  D  D     D  D  D  D     D  R  D  D     D  D  D  D
       {., ., ., .}   {., ., ., .}   {., ., ., .}   {., ., ., .}    
        |  |  |  |     |  |  |  |     |  |  |  |     |  |  |  |
        |  |  |  |    {|__|_}|  |    {|__|} |  |    {|__|_}|__|_}
        |  |  |  |     |     |  |     |     |  |     |     |
        |  |  |  |     |     |  |     |     |  |     |     |
        |  |  |  |     |     |  |     |     |  |     |     |
       {|__|__|__|_}  {|_____|__|_}  {|_____|__|_}  {|_____|____}
        |              |              |              |

    4 =
                                       M  M  M
              R  R                     R  R  R        R  R
        D  R  D  D      D  R  D  R     D  D  D  F     D  D  M  F
       {., ., ., .}    {., ., ., .}   {., ., ., .}   {., ., ., .}    
        |  |  |  |      |  |  |  |     |  |  |  |     |  |  |  |
       {|__|}{|__|_}   {|__|}{|__|}    |  |  |  |    {|__|_}|  |
        |     |         |     |        |  |  |  |     |     |  |
        |     |         |     |       {|__|__|_}|    {|_____|} |
        |     |         |     |        |        |     |        |
       {|_____|____}   {|_____|____}  {|________|}   {|________|}
        |               |              |              |


        D  R  M  F
       {., ., ., .}    
        |  |  |  |
       {|__|} |  |
        |     |  |
       {|_____|} |
        |        |
       {|________|}
        |    
     
     
    Last edited: Nov 16, 2003
  14. Nov 14, 2003 #13

    selfAdjoint

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    Any tautology over a sufficiently small set is true. 1 = 1 is a true statement.
     
  15. Nov 14, 2003 #14
    It doesn't matter, since the "truth" could be that there is a finite number of true statements, and that yours is not one of them.
     
  16. Nov 14, 2003 #15
    I've wondered about that. How do you logically deduce that this is the case? And after having done so, how do you call this conclusion "true" when deductive logic is itself incomplete?
     
  17. Nov 14, 2003 #16

    Another God

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    1=1 is a necessary truth because we made it so. It is a definition. We said that 1 = 1...and that is how it is true. There need not be a proof of it. It is defined thus.

    Necessary Truth.

    Phoenixthoth
    I didn't mean to say that our words have no meaning, but more importantly, their meaning only exists in the things they are representing. By saying things like 'there is a statement' doesn't really mean anything because those words don't refer to anything. They aren't grounded in anything real. We are losing site of reality in amidst all of these words.

    Words are only here to give us a way of communicating ideas about reality that we experience. We have to try our best not to confuse those words with reality. (IMO)
     
  18. Nov 15, 2003 #17
    Absolutely true statement:
    there are infinite number of absolutely useless statements. (including this one)

    this sums it up :wink:
     
    Last edited: Nov 16, 2003
  19. Nov 15, 2003 #18
    there are probably infinitely many false statements as well.

    the flaw in this whole absolute truth thing is that it rests on logic which is not provably absolutely true. i can define 1=1 and i can define 1!=1. of course, one theory is a whole lot more useful than the other, and to say that "1!=1 is true" is pretty banal and absurd, but i can do it if i want.

    revised statement: if you accept the rules of logic then there are infinitely many true statements.
     
  20. Nov 15, 2003 #19
    if there are finitely many true statements that means there are either none or at least one.

    already saw why it can't be none assuming non-contradiction.

    then isn't the statement "there is at least one true statement" true?

    if so, assuming logic, then there are infinitely many:
    "there are n true statements (n>1)" is true.
    then, "there is at least one true statement" follows. the the argument above gives infinitely many true statements, assuming mutual exclucivity.
     
    Last edited: Nov 15, 2003
  21. Nov 17, 2003 #20
    Not much better, phoenixthoth. Accepting logic is actually what lead me to the conclusion, previously, that "there are an infinite amount of true statements or there are no true statements" is paradoxical. The "rules of logic" are what don't allow this statement, ITFP.
     
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