Hey, I'm posting this because I couldn't find one single tutorial that could really answer my questions... My question is, what is voltage, and how does it really work at microscopic level (atoms, electrons, etc)? I'm not looking for answers like "it is what pushes the electrons!", the water's analogy, etc, but the electrons motion, kinetic energy, ions, etc. I would like, if possible, to be given an explanation regarding a simple circuit composed by a battery, two wires and a bulb. Common voltage-related questions I've got are... - Why does the battery run out of energy? Because the negative terminal runs out of electrons? - Why isn't there current in an open circuit? - "An 8V battery provides 8 joules/coulomb"... does it really provide? or does it provide a force that will give each coulomb an 8 joule potential energy? - etc... With answers like "it is what pushes the electrons!", it's impossible to understand the nature of things. PS: I'm sorry for my english. I hope you can understand it.