Water cooled/heated between 0 -4 C

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In summary, water heated between 0 and 4 C will contract and if cooled from 4 to 0 C, it will expand. This is due to the bond strength between water molecules, which is not the case for gas or air molecules. This is why ice floats and also why the atmosphere and mountains are colder. The 0-4 C temperature range is for standard temperature and pressure and the expansion/contraction of water has to do with the dipole bonding force between molecules.
  • #1
wakejosh
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this may be a silly question but:

I understand that water heated between 0 and 4 C will contract, does this mean that if it is cooled from 4 to 0 C it will expand?
 
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  • #2
Yes. Ice floats because it's less dense than water... this isn't an instantaneous expansion, it happens over the last couple of degrees, as the water begins to take on icy like structure (or something like that)
 
  • #3
Sorry to hijack your thread but I have a similar question: does this work for air as well, ie. is hot air more dense than cold air? Is this why it is cold in the atmosphere and on mountains?
 
  • #5
I am not familiar with the specifics of the 0-4 C temp. range; but, I assume it is for standard temp. and pressure. The expansion/contraction of water has to do with the bond strength between the molecules - dipoles I believe. When water cools to near freezing, the molecules no longer have enough energy to break free from this bonding force. It just so happens that the when the molecules align in this way to make the ice crystals, they require a larger volume, hence lower density.

This is different from gas/air. Those atoms/molecules have sufficient energy to completely overcome any inter-atomic/molecular forces -> phase change.
 

Related to Water cooled/heated between 0 -4 C

1. What is the purpose of cooling/heating water between 0-4 C?

The purpose of cooling/heating water between 0-4 C is to maintain a specific temperature range for various scientific experiments or processes. This temperature range is often used in biochemical and biological studies as it mimics the temperature of natural habitats for many organisms.

2. How is water cooled/heated to a specific temperature range?

Water can be cooled/heated to a specific temperature range using various methods such as refrigeration, ice baths, or heating elements. The method used depends on the volume of water and the desired temperature range.

3. What are the benefits of using water cooled/heated between 0-4 C?

There are several benefits of using water cooled/heated between 0-4 C. For one, it can prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms, which is essential for maintaining the integrity of experiments. Additionally, it can also slow down chemical reactions, making it easier to control and observe them.

4. Can water at this temperature range be dangerous?

Water at this temperature range is generally considered safe and not dangerous. However, it is important to follow proper safety protocols and guidelines when handling any substance, including water. Extreme caution should be taken when using heating elements to avoid burns or other accidents.

5. What are some common uses for water cooled/heated between 0-4 C in scientific research?

Water cooled/heated between 0-4 C has a wide range of uses in scientific research. Some common examples include cell and tissue culture experiments, enzyme reactions, protein crystallization, and DNA sequencing. It is also commonly used in medical and pharmaceutical research to preserve and store biological samples or medications.

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