Normally one would think that the work required to move something in a circle is zero since the force is directed normal to the direction of movement and kinetic energy doesn't change. This is easy to understand using a spinning disk, where every particle has a cohort what is changing momentum in the opposite direction such that momentum is conserved. But, take the case of so single particle, say a spaceship in deep space. It will tend to move in a straight line unless a force is applied to change its direction. Fire a rocket normal to the direction of travel and the spaceship will travel in a circle. Clearly, the energy required to do this is not zero. Wouldn't the same analysis apply to turning a car or bicycle or ourselves? How do we calculate the energy cost of turning a single moving particle in a circle knowing the mass, speed, and turning radius through an arc of x radians?