What restricts two separte sources of light to act coherent?

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Drakkith

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Do the phase of wave at x=0 bears a constant value for all values of t?"
No, the phase constantly changes at the same rate as the frequency.

Let Q be another point on the same source(monocromatic) , the phase of wave from point Q at t=0, have same value as the value of phase of wave from P at t=0?"
Yes, the phase at point Q is the same as the phase at point P.
 

Drakkith

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I mean synchronous, modulations etc what are these and what makes sources syncronous and unsyncronous and where does they come into play at the first place?
Synchronous sources will have the same frequency and phase at all times. Whatever you do to one will happen to the other. Non-synchronous sources have a difference in either frequency or phase.

Modulation is when you apply a signal to a carrier wave for things like radio transmission. The modulating signal (such as you talking into a microphone) is mixed with the carrier wave in a mixer, whose output is a new wave that has a varying frequency. If your two sources are coherent even when modulating signals are applied to both of them, that means that the modulating signals are synchronous as well, otherwise the emitters would have a difference in phase or frequency. Understanding waves is essential to understanding modulation.
 

Andy Resnick

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What I was saying is that suppose I have two separate sources of light. <snip> So my that question was about the possibility that if I have two sources that emit waves whose (individual) frequency keep on changing in such a way the two frequencies at any time possessed the same value(though both are changing) that their phase difference should remain same and they should be called coherent sources.
Yes, because in this case there is no way to tell if they are in two separate sources or actually 'slaved' to a single master source that controls them both.
 

Andy Resnick

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<snip>
The straight question is," Let P be one of the point on the source(producing magically only monocromatic light) from where waves are emerging, <snip>Do the phase of wave at x=0 bears a constant value for all values of t?"
No, because of the e^(iwt) dependence.

Let Q be another point on the same source(monocromatic) , the phase of wave from point Q at t=0, have same value as the value of phase of wave from P at t=0?"
The phase difference between P and Q will be constant, but it will vary if Q is allowed to vary (there is an additional time-constant phase difference that depends on the distance between P and Q).

Does this help?
 
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No, the phase constantly changes at the same rate as the frequency.
I don't know another way how to say to you that my source(magically or otherwise) is producing monochromatic light(which means here your answer should be based on the case when frequency is not changing) please read the those two straight questions once again then answer.
 

Drakkith

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I don't know another way how to say to you that my source(magically or otherwise) is producing monochromatic light(which means here your answer should be based on the case when frequency is not changing) please read the those two straight questions once again then answer.
The phase of the wave at any point changes over time, whether the wave is monochromatic or not. If we say that at t=0 the electric field amplitude of a 1 Hz wave is at zero, then the phase is also at 0 degrees. 1/4 second later the phase will have changed by 90 degrees and the electric field amplitude will be at maximum. At 1/2 second the phase will be at 180 degrees, the amplitude will be zero again, but will be changing towards the opposite polarity from where it just was.

So the phase changes in cycle with the wave frequency. The higher the frequency the more rapidly the phase changes and vice-versa.
 
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The phase difference between P and Q will be constant, but it will vary if Q is allowed to vary (there is an additional time-constant phase difference that depends on the distance between P and Q).

Does this help?
No. See I am looking for the answer that if at ****t=0***, the phases of waves from P and Q at their x=0(x=0 for both that at their points of emergence) be same or Not? Remember I has been talking about a source which(magically or otherwise) producing monochromatic(wave of single frequency. My question for phase here is for positions x=0 for both P and Q. I think the answer belongs to some other similar question. And I do not understand what you mean when you say "if we allow Q to vary" what thing you want to vary about Q? Frequency or position or time of observing Q? My Q is fixed point on the source(that is at x=0) my source is producing constant frequency I just want an account if at t=0, the phases of waves emerging from P and Q will have same phase at their x=0(at their respective point of emergence at a same time say t=0).
 
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The phase of the wave at any point changes over time, whether the wave is monochromatic or not. If we say that at t=0 the electric field amplitude of a 1 Hz wave is at zero, then the phase is also at 0 degrees. 1/4 second later the phase will have changed by 90 degrees and the electric field amplitude will be at maximum. At 1/2 second the phase will be at 180 degrees, the amplitude will be zero again, but will be changing towards the opposite polarity from where it just was.

So the phase changes in cycle with the wave frequency. The higher the frequency the more rapidly the phase changes and vice-versa.
Ok so is this applicable for x=0,also? As the time passes the phase at x=0,at P changes at a rate depending on the frequency of wave?
This will will be clarification of answer to my first straight question.
 

Drakkith

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Ok so is this applicable for x=0,also? As the time passes the phase at x=0,at P changes at a rate depending on the frequency of wave?
This will will be clarification of answer to my first straight question.
The phase of the wave changes over time at all locations, not just x=0.
 
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The phase of the wave changes over time at all locations, not just x=0.
OK so this thing that is change of phase(at x=0 too) with time will also happen with point Q. Isn't?

If it phase of wave at P(at x=0 also) changes and at Q also changes. What will you say if the phases of waves from P and Q at any time say t(or t=0) bear a common value? (source is, as remarked monochromatic).I hope(at any time t) phase of P(at x=0)and phase of wave(at the same time t), different values.

If such is the case?
 
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Drakkith

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OK so this thing that is change of phase(at x=0 too) with time will also happen with point Q. Isn't?
It occurs everywhere. It's one of the defining properties of a wave.

If it phase of wave at P(at x=0 also) changes and at Q also changes. Can what will you say if the phases of waves from P and Q at any time say t(or t=0)? I hope(at any time t) phase of P(at x=0)and phase of wave(at the same time t), different values.
I have no idea what you're asking here.
 
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Ok

I have no idea what you're asking here.
I am asking if I focus simultaneously at two points P and Q of my illuminated source(monochromatic). Say I note the phase of wave from P( at x=0,t=0) as alpha. Will the phase of wave from Q(at x=0,t=0) which I noted will come alpha or not?
 

Drakkith

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Say I note the phase of wave from P( at x=0,t=0) as alpha. Will the phase of wave from Q(at x=0,t=0) which I noted will come alpha or not?
I already answered this in post #26. The phase is identical at both points.
 
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I already answered this in post #26. The phase is identical at both points.
Oh sorry :-) yes you answered it. Ok so it means that at every point on the source(monochromatic) all the waves(from respective) points will be in (same) phase.

Is their some explanation to support this? I am not saying this because of any doubt. Of course you would be definitely correct. I know I must be wrong in my intituion that the wave from two points is the result of different electron movement( production of light wave is however as complex phenomenon not simple electron/atom movement as told by you), the waves(at any time at =0) should have different phase(as the two waves are the result of excitement of different electrons).

I really feeling helped. My questions have now been answered. The only think I find a problem is to comprehend the fact you are telling that phases of P and Q(at t=0,x=0) will be same though I accept it to be true. It would be of more help if you explain or refer some book that has an explanation of this.
Regards
 

Drakkith

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I don't know if I can find a reference that specifically says that the phase at P and Q will be the same. It's kind of a given under the conditions in our imaginary setup.
 

sophiecentaur

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@ovais After all these posts, I am still not sure want it is that you are after. If it's just how to interpret the way that waves are described mathematically then that is straightforward. But you seem to be trying to relate it to practical situations. The way into a subject like this is not to try to tackle the clever practical stuff but to get the fundamentals right first.
How is the term "coherent' so relevant for you, here? Have you grasped the significance of the term "coherent" and what it means in practice? It doesn't just refer to time synchronism of two sources where the signals are generated but on how they are synchronised at a point, elsewhere in space.
At a given point in space, the phase relationship between the received signals will not be the same for all frequencies - because of the path difference will change. So I can't see what you are getting at and why it is concerning you so much.
 

sophiecentaur

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I don't know if I can find a reference that specifically says that the phase at P and Q will be the same. It's kind of a given under the conditions in our imaginary setup.
You seem to be having a similar problem to mine in understanding what ovais actually wants. The phase relationship between two 'coherent' sources will not be the same everywhere in space - that's why we get interference patterns. Moreover, when he talks of varying the frequencies of the two sources, he is building in a situation where the phase relationships actually change in time and the interference pattern will be moving about as the frequency varies. It's just building in complexity on top of complexity when I think what he needs is to understand what Coherence is all about.
 
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Here I attach the picture of the content of my text book saying Young Locked the phases. I created this thread for a search that if he had to lock the phases(which would be changing) due to the problem with his source that sodium source undergo abrupt phase changes or due to problem of frequency. Initially it was told to me here that one can't change phase without change in frequency and that phase and frequency can't be changed independently. Later today Drakkith talk more openly saying the phase of wave(at x=0,t=0) varies no matter source is monochromatic or not. Means even if frequency do not change phase can change. I was after this from many days and today only he accepted it.

My last question that I posted today that if the phases of waves from P(at t=0,x=0) and Q(at t=0,x=0) has a physical importance to answer, what actually was Young controlling (to get a constant phase); the changing frequency(with time) of wave from a single point of main source or that he could not use a single source(monochromatic) as coherent source because the different points on the source(at t=0,x=0)have different phases(the reason which I felt). According to me if at the different points say P and Q of the (monochromatic) source he could get waves with same phase(at t=0,x=0) he would let the interference happen with only one source since such a hypothesis that phases of P and Q of, (monochromatic) source will be same(at t=0,x=0) will about to talk the single source as being coherent source. In that case he won't need two slits. If at any time the waves from different points of sources emerges with common same phase.
 

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sophiecentaur

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Here I attach the picture of the content of my text book saying Young Locked the phases. I created this thread for a search that if he had to lock the phases(which would be changing) due to the problem with his source that sodium source undergo abrupt phase changes or due to problem of frequency. Initially it was told to me here that one can't change phase without change in frequency and that phase and frequency can't be changed independently. Later today Drakkith talk more openly saying the phase of wave(at x=0,t=0) varies no matter source is monochromatic or not. Means even if frequency do not change phase can change. I was after this from many days and today only he accepted it.

My last question that I posted today that if the phases of waves from P(at t=0,x=0) and Q(at t=0,x=0) has a physical importance to answer, what actually was Young controlling (to get a constant phase); the changing frequency(with time) of wave from a single point of main source or that he could not use a single source(monochromatic) as coherent source because the different points on the source(at t=0,x=0)have different phases(the reason which I felt). According to me if at the different points say P and Q of the (monochromatic) source he could get waves with same phase(at t=0,x=0) he would let the interference happen with only one source since such a hypothesis that phases of P and Q of, (monochromatic) source will be same(at t=0,x=0) will about to talk the single source as being coherent source. In that case he won't need two slits. If at any time the waves from different points of sources emerges with common same phase.
You are being too literal here. Note that the phrase "Locked the Phases" is in inverted commas. What it means is that the wave trains from the original source are long enough that, when they reach the two slits, they have travelled near enough the same distance to behave as if they were "locked". What "locking" mechanism could Young have possibly used in the 18th Century? He was just relying on the relatively high level of coherence between the waves on the two paths to the slits. If he had illuminated the two slits by offsetting the light source to one side, the coherence would have deteriorated because the beginnings and ends of the wave trains would no longer coincide at the slits.
In non-laser sources, we are dealing with a large number of atoms that emit their photons in no particular phase relative to each other. That means that the coherence length is very short and you have to use symmetry to help you.
You are applying the 'rules' of discussing ideal theoretical sources with the realities of using simple (ancient) sources. The reasoning behind the simple treatment of Young's Slits is flawed, in fact, if you try to apply it to the real world. But the same goes for all simple electrical and mechanical treatments and you need to approach these things from a mature standpoint. It is fatal to try to 'classify' to slavishly in these things.

In the Young's experiment, there is only one source and what Young was really dealing with was the diffraction pattern of all three slits. It just so happens that you can use symmetry to simplify it down to the pattern of the two front slits.
 

sophiecentaur

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@ ovalis:
I found this link which talks around the concept of coherence. It might help you.
 

Drakkith

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Initially it was told to me here that one can't change phase without change in frequency and that phase and frequency can't be changed independently.
I believe what was meant was that changing the frequency causes a phase shift. You can't have a phase shift without changing the frequency of a real source.

According to me if at the different points say P and Q of the (monochromatic) source he could get waves with same phase(at t=0,x=0) he would let the interference happen with only one source since such a hypothesis that phases of P and Q of, (monochromatic) source will be same(at t=0,x=0) will about to talk the single source as being coherent source. In that case he won't need two slits. If at any time the waves from different points of sources emerges with common same phase.
Sure, if P and Q were the only points emitting light. But real sources are extended sources and consist of many points like Q and P, so the slits are needed to get a distinct interference pattern without light from all the other points adding together to blur and destroy the pattern.
 

sophiecentaur

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I believe what was meant was that changing the frequency causes a phase shift. You can't have a phase shift without changing the frequency of a real source.



Sure, if P and Q were the only points emitting light. But real sources are extended sources and consist of many points like Q and P, so the slits are needed to get a distinct interference pattern without light from all the other points adding together to blur and destroy the pattern.
f = dφ/dt in any source. The coherence will affect the Δφ between two sources.
But ovais's ideas seem to be a confusion between theory and reality. A bit more linear book reading would probably help, rather than the (typical of PF) Brownian chain of Q and A approach that some people seem to favour, which so often gets nowhere fast.

Also, it isn't just the spatial distribution of the sources - it's the granular nature of the emissions with many overlapping short bursts and not a CW signal.
 
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I am writing this just for the purpose to get my this thread a meaning in the hope of getting some more help. I am really sorry for my weak mind which still not understood the after so much help :-(
Don't worry. Everyone has a plus point and a minus point. Maybe you are a slow learner. But I am sure once you understand this, you will never forget it. That's a good point of a slow learner.
Ok I will have a background reading for the above. Will you suggest any book on this which talks about this within my level?
I don't know if the books I am going to recommend are in your country. But eBooks wil be available.
1)HC Verma : Concepts of physics
2)Halliday Resnick and Jearl Walker: fundamentals of physics
 
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One more thing @ovais, in wave optics you should know that independent sources can't act as coherent sources. You know the reason. Secondly the purpose of young's experiment is to show diffraction and formation of fringes. For this first go through Huygens principle. Next to through diffraction. It will be there in the books I suggested you. Now come back to young's experiment. Read it again. You don't have to go through complex theories. In the books I specified enough theory is given to improve your concept. Just learn what's in it. Forget everything else.
Once you have gone through YDSE, solve 50 problems in it to increase your understanding.
In Q5: Young used sodium light. The source is still the same sodium. Frequency depends on the source. So frequency is constant. Now I want you to read about diffraction and think why the slits act as coherent sources. If you know it, its fine.
When you learn things yourself you will have a better understanding.
 

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