# Why Energy Flows Between Temperature-Different Systems

• John Pang
In summary, temperature and internal energy are not interchangeable concepts. While the energy of atoms is directly proportional to temperature, they are not the same thing. Heat transfer occurs through collisions, but this does not mean that two systems with the same average kinetic energy will have the same temperature. Temperature is the average kinetic energy of individual atoms, while internal energy is the total sum of energy. Therefore, two systems can have the same temperature but different internal energies.
John Pang
Why energy flows from one system to another due to difference in temperature but not internal energy? The energy of the atoms of a system is only directly proportional to temperature. Same temperature doesn't mean same internal energy. However, I believed tgat heat is transferred through collisions, in which the atoms exchange their velocities.Due to random motion of atoms, the two systems would eventually have the same average kinetic energy. But same average kinetic energy doesn't mean same temperature,right? Then, why is the temperature of the two system the same eventually?

Oh i suddenly understand it. Internal energy is the sum of energy while temperature us tge average kinetic energy of individual atoms. Same temperature means same average kinetic energy.
Sorry for bothering

berkeman

## 1. Why does energy flow between temperature-different systems?

Energy flows between temperature-different systems because of the second law of thermodynamics, which states that energy always spontaneously flows from objects with higher energy (or temperature) to objects with lower energy (or temperature). This flow of energy is known as heat transfer and is driven by the natural tendency of systems to reach thermal equilibrium.

## 2. What factors affect the rate of energy flow between temperature-different systems?

The rate of energy flow between temperature-different systems is affected by several factors, including the temperature difference between the systems, the thermal conductivity of the materials involved, and the surface area and distance between the systems. Other factors such as the presence of insulation can also impact the rate of heat transfer.

## 3. How does energy flow between temperature-different systems affect the overall temperature of the systems?

When energy flows between temperature-different systems, it causes a change in the temperature of both systems. The system with higher temperature will lose energy and decrease in temperature, while the system with lower temperature will gain energy and increase in temperature. This process continues until both systems reach thermal equilibrium, where the energy flow stops and the temperatures of both systems become equal.

## 4. Can energy flow between temperature-different systems be reversed?

According to the second law of thermodynamics, energy always flows from higher temperature systems to lower temperature systems, and this process cannot be reversed unless external work is done. This means that energy cannot spontaneously flow from a colder system to a hotter system without the input of additional energy.

## 5. How is the flow of energy between temperature-different systems used in everyday life?

The flow of energy between temperature-different systems is used in various ways in everyday life, such as heating and cooling systems, cooking, and refrigeration. It is also utilized in industrial processes, such as power generation and manufacturing. Understanding the principles of energy transfer between temperature-different systems is essential for designing efficient and effective systems for practical use.

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