I'm pretty sure this answer is not known but it always good to double check. Dark energy causes space to expand but the space inside a galaxy does not. Does anyone know why? I'm pretty sure the answer is not known, so I have a guess as to why this might be the case. Particles send out gravitational waves that cause the space around them to attract other particles. When these particles are not present the space is free of this attraction and will therefore expand. In brief, where there are massive objects space contracts or at least does not expand, where there are no massive objects space expands. Not much of an explanation but it's just a conjecture anyway.