I have a problem that my technical engineer training can't solve. We have static water pipes installed under a canopy of a building. The coldest air tempreture recorded is -8.5 Celius during winter. We can assume that the air tempreture stays at -8.5 Celius and there is minimal air movement. If we assume that the pipe and water starts at 6 Celius and is exposed to -8.5 Celius for 8 hours will the water in the pipe freeze? The pipe is 32mm OD, 25mm ID. The pipe is carbon steel. Part of the answer is a formula for a curve that relates heat loss and time to tempreture. The differcult problem becomes when the tempreture reachs zero then the latent heat starts to be given up. Currently me and the building inspector are having an arguement as to whether the pipe should be dosed with antifreeze. I need a copy of the calculation to show the inspector. Thanks for any help.