What is Bremsstrahlung: Definition and 51 Discussions

Bremsstrahlung (German pronunciation: [ˈbʁɛms.ʃtʁaːlʊŋ] (listen)), from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus. The moving particle loses kinetic energy, which is converted into radiation (i.e., photons), thus satisfying the law of conservation of energy. The term is also used to refer to the process of producing the radiation. Bremsstrahlung has a continuous spectrum, which becomes more intense and whose peak intensity shifts toward higher frequencies as the change of the energy of the decelerated particles increases.
Broadly speaking, bremsstrahlung or braking radiation is any radiation produced due to the deceleration (negative acceleration) of a charged particle, which includes synchrotron radiation (i.e. photon emission by a relativistic particle), cyclotron radiation (i.e. photon emission by a non-relativistic particle), and the emission of electrons and positrons during beta decay. However, the term is frequently used in the more narrow sense of radiation from electrons (from whatever source) slowing in matter.
Bremsstrahlung emitted from plasma is sometimes referred to as free–free radiation. This refers to the fact that the radiation in this case is created by electrons that are free (i.e., not in an atomic or molecular bound state) before, and remain free after, the emission of a photon. In the same parlance, bound–bound radiation refers to discrete spectral lines (an electron "jumps" between two bound states), while free–bound one—to the radiative combination process, in which a free electron recombines with an ion.

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  1. cemtu

    I Why Bremsstrahlung <20keV for Tungsten?

    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Bremsstrahlung-and-characteristic-radiation-spectra-are-shown-for-a-tungsten-anode-with_fig4_8365056 Fast electrons produce X-rays in the anode of an X-ray tube through two different methods. The first one is the interaction of electrons with the nuclei of...
  2. R

    Replacing bremsstrahlung tubes with solid-state alternatives?

    What are the reasons X-ray vacuum tubes could not be replaced by solid state alternatives?
  3. R

    Size of bremsstrahlung radiation fields generated by linear accelerators

    Hi everyone, sorry we are talking about pulsed power accelerators again. In this context, it is about the HERMES III again. According to https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a351472.pdf HERMES III, a 16 terawatt pulsed power accelerator at Sandia National Labs, which fired electron beams...
  4. R

    Differences between X-rays and Gamma rays

    Some people said if it is originated from electrons then it is X-ray but if it is originated from the nucleus it is Gamma ray. But people can produced X-rays and Gamma rays by Bremsstrahlung process and in Bremsstrahlung process it is resulted from decelerating or braking electrons. So, Gamma...
  5. G

    A Bremsstrahlung single photon or spectrum

    Non-relativistic Bremsstrahlung is discussed classically in Rybicki “Radiative Processes in Astrophysics” where Larmor’s formula is used to find the power radiated in a collision between an electron and a Coulomb field. The Fourier transform of the pulse allows for a description of the pulse in...
  6. nightvidcole

    Is Visible Light Bremsstrahlung Observable in Transparent Mediums?

    Summary: Can one observe visible light bremsstrahlung when an electron beam stops in a transparent medium? The theoretical form of a bremsstrahlung spectrum is flat at low photon energies. This means that even a high energy electron beam incident on matter should cause the emission of visible...
  7. M

    B Electron-positron bremsstrahlung

    If I have an electron and positron in a vacuum, initially at rest with respect to each other and in close proximity, will they produce any bremsstrahlung radiation?
  8. B

    Highest Frequency emitted by bremsstrahlung

    Homework Statement Electrons are accelerated in a television tube through a potential difference of 8.5 kV. What is the highest frequency of the electromagnetic waves emitted when these electrons strike the screen of the tube? Homework Equations λ = c/f E (of the electron) = V*e E (of the...
  9. tze liu

    I Ring or the shell in Bremsstrahlung?

    Recently i watch a video about Thermal Bremsstrahlung. and i don't understand the explanation that they use a ring instead of disk in 6:02 to 7:06. (1)how did he divided the set of electrons up into in two sets of velocities that are all in the same direction and sum over all of the different...
  10. A

    A What happens to an electron's energy after Bremsstrahlung radiation?

    What happens to an electron after it has undergone Bremsstrahlung and all its energy has been converted into an x-ray photon?
  11. A

    I X-ray spectra- bremsstrahlung and characteristic x-rays

    Hi all, In an x-ray spectrum, the curve part represents the bremsstrahlung part, and the spikes are the characteristics x-rays. Characteristic x-rays represent a discrete energy. However, in many textbooks, I noticed that the characteristic x-rays are often represented as a peak, which implies...
  12. A

    B Experimental data of bremsstrahlung

    Hi ! I'm not sure to post my question in a good place so please move if inappropriate... I search experimental data of bremsstrahlung interaction as we can found experimental data of nuclear interaction on EXFOR. Someone know a website which provide that ? Thanks in advance !
  13. P

    Antennas and electromagnetic radiation

    Antennas work with variable current that leads to accelerations and deceleration ofor the electrons, the frequency of the photon or the electromagnetic radiation I want to generate depends on the change in kinetic energy of the electron E= hf= change of kinetic energy of the electron, according...
  14. Garlic

    A Strong force bremsstrahlung equivalent

    Are there strong interactional equivalents of synchrotron, bremsstrahlung and cerenkov radiation? Or for the weak/gravitational interactions? For example, will an accelerating bare quark emit gluons?
  15. G

    I What is the Bremsstrahlung Spectrum function?

    What is the function that describes the shape of this Bremsstrahlung X-ray spectrum curve? Ignore the characteristic "spikes".
  16. I

    Angular momentum during bremsstrahlung

    Two free electrons approach each other, so they start to emit photons due to bremsstrahlung. Where does the angular momentum carried away by the emitted photons come from?
  17. M

    What Are the Feynman Rules for Bremsstrahlung with Vector Particle Production?

    So this isn't a homework problem really, but based on the posting rules for the HEP section this seems to fit better here. My issue is that I'm trying to use a Feynman diagram to represent a Bremsstrahlung process in which a vector particle is produced: $$ Z + e^- \rightarrow Z + e^- + v. $$...
  18. Shailesh Pincha

    Why does the intensity of Bremsstrahlung radiation increase with lower energy?

    http://www.quora.com/Why-is-the-spectrum-of-Bremsstrahlung-radiation-continuous In the above link, it says that "you will count more low-energy events since they are more probable." Which must mean that at lower energy we must get more intense radiation...
  19. R

    Interpretation of Bremsstrahlung diagram

    This is what we have been given in class: I'm a little confused as the electron seems to emit two gamma rays? I understand that the process can't occur if there isn't interaction with a nucleus due to conservation of momentum. Please could someone confirm that the top gamma is the initial...
  20. Mazin Nasralla

    XRay Production and Bremsstrahlung

    Hello, I have been studying XRays recently in a general science course. It's about A Level standard but I want to take my interest further. Anyway to the point. I thought I understood the release of XRays when an electron is slowed as it ploughs into a tungsten anode in an X-Ray Tube...
  21. J

    Is Bremsstrahlung Radiation Compatible with Rutherford's Scattering Experiment?

    Hi, I am having some difficulty understanding some of the concepts in involved in Bremsstrahlung Radiation. I have recently been learning about the Rutherford scattering experiment where an alpha particle is fired towards a gold nucleus. In my book there is a fairly simple derivation of how you...
  22. TESL@

    Can lithium blankets increase bremsstrahlung absorption in fusion research?

    As far as I know, bremsstrahlung radiation -especially cyclotron- can be absorbed by the plasma but it escapes because it is not dense enough etc. Have researchers tried to make lithium blankets reflect those radiations and trap the radiation inside, eventually increasing the absorption rate...
  23. ORF

    Can we find EM radiation in charged particle's decays?

    Hello. I was taught that a charge which changes its velocity must radiate (at least, in classical electrodynamics). Let's consider a charged particle which decays into another charged particle (and, maybe, others neutral particles; but not photons). In this case, can we find electromagnetic...
  24. B

    What's the problem with bremsstrahlung?

    Hello, I am reading about the bremsstrahlung phenomenon, and am having difficulty seeing how this phenomenon clashes with classical physics. Could someone possible explain the process, and why there is no classical physics description for it?
  25. P

    Bremsstrahlung wavelength range

    i need to calculate what percentage of the energy put into a X-ray tube will be between the minimum wavelength and the longest wavelength suitable for it's application (as to calculate how efficiently it does it's job) with only the input voltage (unless the anode material is important) the...
  26. Einj

    Furry's theorem and soft bremsstrahlung

    Hi everyone, I have a doubt which was actually raised by a recent discussion on this forum. We know that Furry's theorem says that diagrams with an odd number of photon vanish. Roughly the reason behind that is the charge conjugation symmetry, since under such operation the photon field behaves...
  27. I

    Direction of a photon created by bremsstrahlung radiation?

    basically any time i have an arc, i have electrons flowing in the opposite direction to the field gradient. so when the electrons reach the other side, they will be stopped, which will then produce an EM wave. In, class, my professor drew the direction of radiation in a particular direction, but...
  28. E

    Bremsstrahlung X-Rays: Coulomb Interaction & Electron Acceleration

    1. I have problems finding the truth of this statement. The statement is cited from "book". I want to draw your attention to the following words: electron is decelerated 2. Statement: "Bremsstrahlung X rays result from Coulomb interaction between the incident electron and the nuclei of the...
  29. D

    Bremsstrahlung from different materials

    I'm curious about the compatibility of a whipple shield and bremsstrahlung prevention(like that provided by paraffin). Until a short time ago, I was under the impression that bremsstrahlung is only generated when a charged particle collides with a metal. This is apparently not the case. So...
  30. N

    How to calculate the Bremsstrahlung Background?

    Hi everybody, first I like to thank you for this nice forum :smile: I tried the search function and found no answer to my question, so here it is: How can I calculate the Bremsstrahlungs background for TEM EDX spectras (Intensity vs. Energy)? I found several formulas, for example the...
  31. W

    Spin-orbit interaction and bremsstrahlung

    Hi, It never occurred to me before, but when you derive the spin-orbit Hamiltonian as a perturbation to the hydrogen Hamiltonian, you imagine your electron orbiting around the nucleus, and of course that's not the correct picture because of the electromagnetic radiation that leaks out. So I...
  32. D

    Why does bremsstrahlung happen

    Homework Statement Why does it happen? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I read that Bremsstrahlung happens because a charged particle loses kinetic energy as it swings past a nucleus, therefore a photon is released to conserve energy. However, since the electric...
  33. E

    Feynman diagrams for Bremsstrahlung

    Hi, the breaking radiation emitted by the scattering of an electron with an external field is described by the hamiltonian: H=\bar \Psi^- (\displaystyle{\not}{A}_e + \displaystyle{\not}A) \Psi^+ where A_e is the external static classical field, while A is the quantized field. The...
  34. B

    Bremsstrahlung X-rays Energy Limit

    For an x-ray tube at constant voltage I know that the maximum energy Bremsstrahlung x-ray that can be produced is directly related to the voltage on the tube. But what about the minimum energy? Is there a limit, or can all energies below the maximum be produced? I realize that adding a...
  35. Z

    Radio waves emitted by an antenna - Bremsstrahlung radiation?

    Would radio waves emitted by an antenna be considered Bremsstrahlung radiation caused by pushing the electrons back and forth?
  36. N

    Plot Bremsstrahlung Energy Spectra - Formula & Tips

    Hi all How can I plot bremsstrahlung energy spectra?What is the formula for this topic? Pleas help me! thanks a lot.
  37. N

    Production of the bremsstrahlung

    Hey, My book says: When an electron strikes the target metal it is attracted by the positively charged nuclei, and hence it loses speed and hence emits a photon of X-ray. That doesn't make sense to me. We learned that in centripitel acceleration, that the speed of the object being...
  38. P

    Bremsstrahlung photon intensity and energy

    Does the timescale over which a charge decelerates determine the energy and intensity of brem photons? Consider two electrons, one is decelerated over a large distance and relatively long period of time. A second electron is involved in fast scattering event and loses its energy relatively...
  39. K

    Difference between thermal and non-thermal Bremsstrahlung

    Can anyone give me a nice explanation of the difference between thermal and non-thermal Bremsstrahlung? Thank you!
  40. D

    Looking for info on Bremsstrahlung

    Hello, I'm looking for any information on bremsstrahlung in a vacuum (or near vacuum). I've been trying to look for some information on google and in my school's physics library. The one book I found in the library was checked out so I couldn't actually look at it, but it looked like the book...
  41. J

    Understanding cut off wavelength at edge of Bremsstrahlung region

    Hello, I am trying to understand an equation stated in the book 'Principles of Protein X-Ray Crystallography' by Jan Drenth (The exact page I am reffering to can be found here...
  42. W

    Why is Bremsstrahlung produced during electron-nucleus encounters?

    It is my understanding that if an electron decelerates during an encounter with a 'heavy target nucleus', the energy lost by the electron is converted to an x-ray. The book I'm using says that 'the target nucleus is so massive that the energy it acquires during the collision can safely be...
  43. T

    What's the hard bremsstrahlung emission?

    Hi! I need to know what's the "hard bremsstrahlung emission". I googled it but it only showed papers (and few because my university don't have access to many) on experiences that at some point mention this effect but don't explain it. I know what's bremsstrahlung emission, just don't know...
  44. S

    Magetic lens electron beam bremsstrahlung

    I am trying to find information about the creation of bremsstrahlung due to the convergence or deflection of an electron beam using an magnetic lens. I can not find any information about the creation of bremsstrahlung when electron beams pass through magnetic lenses, I have only found...
  45. B

    Bremsstrahlung in scintillators

    The monochromatic gamma rays enter a scintillator (e.g. NaI). Then I compute the deposited energy spectrum. I need a techinque of modeling of the bremsstrahlung produced by the recoil electrons without direct modeling of the electrons trajectory. What could I do?
  46. L

    Bremsstrahlung near the cutoff frequency, experimental data

    Goodmorning, I would be interrested in experimental data regarding the Bremsstrahlung process near the quantum mechanical cutoff, possibly single events data. I thought that maybe something like a bubble chamber picture could illustrate this process. This is maybe a naïve dream but this...
  47. Reshma

    Bremsstrahlung, photoelectric effect & internal conversion?

    Bremsstrahlung is the process in which an accelerated electron radiates and loses energy in the form of a photon(production of continuous X-rays). In photoelectric effect, an atom absorbs a photon and an electron from one of the shells is ejected. So, is it reasonable to regard X-ray...
  48. B

    Does Pair Creation = Bremsstrahlung?

    In Chapter 6 of M. Kaku's book (QFT), he wrote (p184) "...by rotating the diagram around, we can convert bremsstrahlung into pair creation." Bremsstrahlung, as far as I know, involves atoms. Does this mean that when bremsstrahlung with >1.2 MeV strikes an atom we will get an electron and a...
  49. A

    Understanding Bremsstrahlung and Cerenkov Emission

    Bremsstrahlung and Cerenkov I've been wondering about the different cases of light emittion, and the most unclear to me are Bremsstrahlung and chrenkoff. If u can, please give me details about these two cases. Thank You. :D