What is Energy states: Definition and 42 Discussions
Energy in the United States comes mostly from fossil fuels: in 2010, data showed that 25% of the nation's energy originates from petroleum, 22% from coal, and 22% from natural gas.
Nuclear power supplied 8.4% and renewable energy supplied 8%, mainly from hydroelectric dams and biomass; however, this also includes other renewable sources like wind, geothermal, and solar. Data from 2019 shows that 37% of the nation's energy originates from petroleum, 32% from natural gas, 11% from coal, 11% from renewable energy, and 8% from nuclear power.The United States was the second-largest energy consumer in 2010 after China. The country is ranked seventh in energy consumption per capita after Canada and several small nations. As of 2006, the country's energy consumption had increased more rapidly than domestic energy production over the last 50 years in the nation (when they were roughly equal). This difference was largely met through imports. Not included is the significant amount of energy used overseas in the production of retail and industrial goods consumed in the United States.
According to the Energy Information Administration's statistics, the per-capita energy consumption in the U.S. has been somewhat consistent from the 1970s to the present time. The average was about 334 million British thermal units [BTU] (352 GJ) per person from 1980 to 2010. One explanation suggested that the energy required to increase the nation's consumption of manufactured equipment, cars, and other goods has been shifted to other countries producing and transporting those goods to the U.S. with a corresponding shift of green house gases and pollution. In comparison, the world average increased from 63.7 to 75 million BTU (67.2 to 79.1 GJ) per person between 1980 and 2008.
I tried to find states in direct method using ##\frac{E}{E_0}=\:nx^2+ny^2+nz^2## and ##100\:<nx^2+ny^2+nz^2\:<\:136##
But it was too long, found it using phi approximation there are around 300 energy states, and Python find around 271 states using direct method but I need manual or recursive...
Hi I'm new to quantum mechanics, Looking for some help regarding a concept i am struggling to solve. I am curious if I had a cube of particles in a ground state and another cube with the same particle in a higher energy state.
If I placed one upon another, is there anything in quantum mechanics...
I know that we use quantum mechanic and wave function to calculate probability of finding electrons but is there anything valid about bohr model that we still use it?
I'm having trouble picturing the energy states for some systems. For instance, I was reading Reif's Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics, and at some point he talks about the energy states of a pool acting as a heat reservoir interacting with a bottle of wine. The problem is that...
A question came up about deducing the number of possible energy states within a certain momentum ##p## using momentum space.
To make my question easier to understand, I deliberately chose ##p## and not a particular increment ##dp## and I assume a 2 dimensional momentum space with coordinates...
Homework Statement
A hydrogen atom collides with another hydrogen atom at rest. If the electrons in both atoms are in the ground state, what is the minimum kinetic energy of the hydrogen atom such that the hydrogen atom at rest will have its electron in the first excited state after collision...
Hello,
I am currently trying to get my head around the concept of entropy. One way to understand it is that it can be related to the amount of available energy levels in a system.
From what I read, the availability of energy levels in a system:
1) increase with an increase in the system...
Does energy have different states analogous to the solid, liquid, gas, and plasma states of matter?
Would they be the same as "forms of energy" described here?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forms_of_energy
Homework Statement
The three lowest energy states of an infinitely deep square well (of width L, between x=0 and x=L) are:
Ψ1(x,t) = N sin(πx/L) e-iω1t
Ψ2(x,t) = N sin(2πx/L) e-iω2t
Ψ3(x,t) = N sin(3πx/L) e-iω3t
N = sqrt(2/L) is the normalization, to make the total probability = 1.
Each wave...
Guys
I have a doubt
When we calculate the trial function
We do it for the wave function of the orbitals
Right in order to get the total orbital energy
(Which included the energy of the electron) and that of the orbital
Well my question
Is does the orbital possess
Some energy even if the electron...
Homework Statement
I figured out 4a, but I'm just struggling a bit with 4b.
Homework Equations
Relevant websites highlighted above (respectively):
http://www.nist.gov/pml/data/handbook/index2.cfm
http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/ASD/lines_form.html
The Attempt at a Solution
This is...
I'm doing some personal research on how matter interacts with radiation. Specifically, I am looking through the treatment of Bransden and Joachain. I've taken two semesters of quantum in the past (a while ago), but now I'm coming across something that I've either never seen or never stopped to...
Homework Statement
Recall the definition of the overlap of wave functions Φ and Ψ:
[; (\Psi , \Phi ) = \int\limits_{-\infty}^\infty dx\: \Psi ^{*} (x)\Phi(x);]
Let ψ1(x) and ψ2(x) be unit-normalised wavefunctions representing sharp-energy states with different energies (and hence zero...
Ok, so what I considered to be true for quite some time now has been somewhat tarnished after something that was said recently in a lecture, so I am looking for some insight.
Basically, I was told several times by several teachers/professors over the years that when an electron absorbs a...
Are lower energy electron orbitals always closer to nucleus than higher energy orbitals? Is this energy proportional to the inverse square law and Coulomb's law?
When an electron jumps down to a lower energy orbital, is potential energy not just converted to kinetic energy, and so where does...
When two objects move under the influence of their mutual force alone, we can treat the relative motion as a one-particle system of mass μ=m1m2/(m1+m2). An object of mass m2and charge -e orbits an object of mass m1 and charge +Ze. By appropriate substitutions into formulas given in the chapter...
Homework Statement
There is a thin tube in which a finite potential trap has been set up where V2 = 0 V. An electron is shown traveling rightward toward the trap, in a region with a voltage of V1 = -9.00 V, where it has a kinetic energy of 2.00 eV. When the electron enters the trap region...
Homework Statement
A particle is confined to a two-dimensional box defined by the following boundary conditions: U(x, y) = 0 for \frac{-L}{2} ≤ x ≤ \frac{L}{2} and
\frac{-3L}{2} ≤ y ≤ \frac{3L}{2}, and U(x, y) = ∞ outside these ranges. Determine the energies of the three lowest energy states...
So, I've read conference proceedings and they appear to talk about counter-intuitive it was to create an infinite-energy state for the harmonic oscillator with a normalizable wave function (i.e. a linear combination of eigenstates). How exactly could those even exist in the first place?
Homework Statement
Use the relationship kinetic energy E = p^2/2m to show that the energy E_{0} of an electron of mass m in its lowest energy state is given by E_{0} = h^2/8mL^2
Homework Equations
E = p^2/2m
E_{0} = h^2/8mL^2
The Attempt at a Solution
I've stared at this...
Alright, I'm back with yet another question...
So the prof was explaining that the energy in an infinite cubical well is E((h2∏2)/2ma2))(nx2+ny2+nz2)
Which is all well and good, and he gave us the example of:
ψ1,2,1 = E = 6((h2∏2)/2ma2))
And with little explanation mixed it up once...
Given a simple atom like the Bohr atom (and possibly generalized to any other atom), I know that an electron can transition from one energy level to another, either by absorbing or releasing a photon of a precise hf. How much time does an electron take to make a transition from one energy level...
Could somebody point me in the right direction on how to go about starting this question please? In need of some guidance on where to begin.
Homework Statement
Calculate the separation between the two lowest energy states for an electron confined in an infinite potential well of width 1nm...
The variation method for approximating the the ground state eigenvalue, when applied to higher energy states requires that the trial function be orthogonal to the lower energy eigenfunctions.In that respect this book I am referring(by Leonard Schiff) mentions the following function as the...
Homework Statement
Consider a system made of 4 quantum fermions that can access 10 distinct states respectively with energies:
En=n/10 eV with n=1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
1) Write the expression for the entropy when the particles can access all states with equal probability
2) Compute...
Hi all,
My Physics tutor's reasoning for no well-defined energies existing in nature for a system in time was that if a system had a well defined energy in time, such that |psi> = |E0> then, evidently, the energy cannot vary.
And, his logic goes on to say that if an energy cannot vary, you...
I know that UV-Vis spectroscopy is based on the principle of electrons jumping to higher energy states but I just read that each energy state has a number of "vibrational energy levels" inside it. Heres a diagram:
I'm confused now, what is a vibrational energy level and what is an energy...
The nucleus of an atom has discrete energy states. And most of the time it emits gamma rays and x-rays from the nucleus. If I pack enough atoms into a solid or some other configuration could I get the nucleus to emit visible light. Is there any way I could manipulate the states to get them to...
Homework Statement
The figure (see attachment) shows part of a energy-state-diagram for an atom. Three energy states are included. At energy transition 1 & 2 the atom emit radiation with the wavelengths of 2.56 \cdot 10^{-8} m and 3.04 \cdot 10^{-8} m, respectively.
Find the wavelength...
I'm confused about what is going on theoretically with Raman, and light in general, wrt photon absorption, annihilation, and re-emission; I don't have the math background to understand Fourier transform, of anything past simple algebra anymore, but would like to at least have a decent...
I wonder whether Dirac explanation of paradox of negative energy solutions
of his equation is viable. Of course this paradox is absent in QFT but if
we treat Dirac equation as an equation for wave function of electron
the negative energy solution are a puzzle. Acording to Dirac we don't...
Homework Statement
A hydrogen atom is excited from the state with n=1 to that with n=4. Calculate the energy (in eV) that must be absorbed by the atom. Calculate and display on an energy-level diagram the different photon energied (in eV) that may be emitted in order for the atom to reach...
Homework Statement
Find the wavelength of the radiation emitted when a hydrogen atom makes a transition from the n = 6 to the n = 3 state. Give answer in Âµm.
Homework Equations
z^2 / n^2 x 13.6ev
delta E = E2 - E1 = hv
The Attempt at a...
Homework Statement
Consider the 3-D infinite potential well (length=L). The energy levels for this system are given by E=(h bar)^2\pi^2/(2ML^2)*(n(sub x)^2+(n(sub y)^2+(n(sub z)^2)
There are 10 particles in this potential well. What is the lowest energy of this ten-particle state when the...
I've been thinking about one of the postulates about one particle quantum mechanics, it says that whenever we measure an energy value, we get one of those eigenvalues.
Firstly, pretty much 99% of the stuffs I know in nonrelativistic QM applies in the realm of electromagnetism. I just don't...
Dirac's theory of the electron predicted that there were identical particles of equal mass but of negative energy.
He appealed to the Pauli exclusion principle and proposed that there was a negative energy 'sea' of electrons that was full up to -2mc^2 in order to answer critics that positive...
Homework Statement
Five non-interacting particles are placed in a three dimensional harmonic oscillator potential for which the single-particle energy is:
E_n = (n_x + n_y + n_z +3/2)\hbar\omega
What is the lowest energy of the five-particle system when the particles are:
a)...
Dirac's theory of the electron predicted that there were identical
particles of equal mass but of negative energy.
He appealed to the Pauli exclusion principle and proposed that there
was a negative energy 'sea' of electrons that was full up to -2mc^2 in
order to answer critics that positive...
"The electron tends to be in its lowest energy state."
"When an electron reaches an excited state, it does not stay there but quickly de-excites by decreasing its energy (emitting a photon)."
These statements are made considering an electron trapped in an infinite 1-D potential well. But...
ok this might be a stupid question, but why are high energy states unstable, like electrons in excited state, does it have some force acting on it that's pushing it down, or pulling it towards the nucleus greater when its at a higher state?
Belle
The Question
Consider two energy states, E2 = 2.0 eV and E1 = 1.0 eV. Assume that there are 1.0 x 10^16 electrons/cm^3 in E2 and 1.0 x 10^15 electrons/cm^3 in E1. What temperature is required to create this population distribution in thermal equilibrium?
How do you define the...