An operational amplifier (often op amp or opamp) is a DCcoupled highgain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a singleended output. In this configuration, an op amp produces an output potential (relative to circuit ground) that is typically 100,000 times larger than the potential difference between its input terminals. Operational amplifiers had their origins in analog computers, where they were used to perform mathematical operations in linear, nonlinear, and frequencydependent circuits.
The popularity of the op amp as a building block in analog circuits is due to its versatility. By using negative feedback, the characteristics of an opamp circuit, its gain, input and output impedance, bandwidth etc. are determined by external components and have little dependence on temperature coefficients or engineering tolerance in the op amp itself.
Op amps are used widely in electronic devices today, including a vast array of consumer, industrial, and scientific devices. Many standard IC op amps cost only a few cents; however, some integrated or hybrid operational amplifiers with special performance specifications may cost over US$100 in small quantities. Op amps may be packaged as components or used as elements of more complex integrated circuits.
The op amp is one type of differential amplifier. Other types of differential amplifier include the fully differential amplifier (similar to the op amp, but with two outputs), the instrumentation amplifier (usually built from three op amps), the isolation amplifier (similar to the instrumentation amplifier, but with tolerance to commonmode voltages that would destroy an ordinary op amp), and negativefeedback amplifier (usually built from one or more op amps and a resistive feedback network).
TL;DR Summary: How to calculate the operational amplifiers in the circuit diagram
Hello Everyone,
I am trying to learn the circuit diagram of one of a device in which I will be doing modifications as a part of my Masters's Research to make it performance better. My background is in Mechanical...
I'm just curious, I have looked for application notes and such but don't see a simple answer to this question. Given the band gap of semiconductors that are very obvious in devices like diodes and transistors and such, how do designers achieve 'railtorail' performance in an op amp, and get...
Here's the circuit in question:
Solution:
Now, when I try simulating in LTSpice, this is what I get:
So, Vout appears to be around 13 V, which doesn't agree with the equation if V1=V2= 5 is plugged in.
Does anyone see the mistake here?
THanks.
Homework Statement
For example, what type of filter is this:
How can one tell, as a general guideline, without finding the transfer function? I think finding the transfer function is the only real way to tell for sure, but what is a quick way to make an educated guess?
The Attempt at a...
Hello. I'm looking for a quad op amp similar to TL074 but rail to rail (mainly for input) in DIP14 (I found a lot in SMD) and supporting +12V / 12V as power supply.
Homework Statement
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The filters of FIGURE 4(a) to (c) where designed using a commercial software package (http://focus.ti.com/docs/toolsw/folders/print/filterpro.html)
Write a report (of approximately 750 words) that discusses and compares the design of each filter in terms of their...
Homework Statement
Finding closed loop gain and Ip and In current in op amp
Homework Equations

The Attempt at a Solution
I started by trying getting voltage divider for points between R1 and R2 as (R2/(R2+R1))Vs and between R4 and R5 similarly. And I'm not sure how to continue on. Any help...
Hello there, this isn't necessarily a homework question. I came across this qn during revision and didn't know how to solve it. Any help would be greatyly appreciated.
The answer is 0.97
1. Homework Statement
For the ideal OPAmp in negative feedback configuration shown in Figure Q30...
Greetings,
I'd like to invert a signal I get from a photodetector (the signals are up to 100 mV). I decided to use an inverting op amp circuit for that, however, when looking online through the op amp catalogs  the minimum input voltage in the descriptions is a few volts while my input would...
Could anyone verify if this is an impossible circuit, I put it in pSpice and it didn't work, I have no opamps or voltage generators to build the circuit otherwise I would have built it. What do you all think, is it possible to find the transfer function of the far right opamp? The schematic is...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
H(s)= Vo / Vi
Ideal op amp:
V+ = V
Vo = V
The Attempt at a Solution
To simplify the circuit, I noticed that the 200 ohm resistor and 60 microFarad capacitor are in parallel so:
Zp = (R/sC) / [(1+sRC)/(sC)] = R / [(1+sRC)]
Seeing that the Zp is in...
This is not directly a homework question, as I found the answer. The question did not specify that compartmentalization be used, but it was in the section of Cascaded Op Amps, and the general idea of the section is to compartmentalize such complex looking circuits into cascaded stages of...
Homework Statement
https://physicsforumsbernhardtmediall.netdnassl.com/data/attachments/73/737504bf3d2aa03a724fcf0b13a6b1111902f.jpg The Attempt at a Solution
V+ > V for Vout to be +16V
V+ < V for Vout to be 16V
V+ = 8x(in)
V = (15x18)/30 + (15x12)/30 = 3
My attempt on it was that...
Are there any readily available op amps with built in resistors that give a fixed gain, say 5, 10, 50, 100 etc.
A lot of times I need to boost a sensor output and I'm too lazy to find/solder resistors do it. I'd rather buy a bunch of preset amplifiers that are ready to be plugged in and...
Homework Statement
So for one of my labs, I had to make a bistable multivibrator and observe the transfer characteristics. The circuit is setup as follows:
http://i.imgur.com/1G4M7DE.jpg
(Image is too big to be inserted in this forum)
This resulted in the following hysteresis loop...
Edit: I solved it, and found that it should be 30v because that causes a 24v drop across 40kohm resistor which is 6v, which is equal to the voltage at the non inverting terminal, meaning Vout will be +VSat, but I don't understand why this is correct, because my notes say that if the voltage at...
Homework Statement
Here is the problem:
So this is a bistable multivibrator.
Homework Equations
KVL and KCL lawsThe Attempt at a Solution
I don't entirely understand bistable multivibrators. I get what the solution is, the input voltage caps at 0.1V and the output caps at 0.7V and hysteresis...
Sorry if this seems like a simple question, but I am new to RF systems.
Is there a difference between an RF amplifer and a single rail operational amplifer? Or can you boost the power of an RF signal with a generic op amp?
Also, when dealing with an RF signal, are coax cables and SMA...
Homework Statement
What is the exact definition of negative feedback? the instructor told us that negative exists if the output is connected back to the inverting input through a passive element. But what exactly is precise the definition ? (say parallel connect, same two nodes, I want the...
Homework Statement
We have a given opamp, the data sheet has a specified slewrate value for it, but in practice it happens to be a lot lower.
I essentially used a stepinput to determine the slewrate and found it to be much lower. I can't remember the exact values now. I think The...
Hi,
I was hoping someone could help me resolve a little difficulty I have.

Question number one: Say you have an op amp with a negative feedback. I've been taught that the principle of 'virtual ground' must hold. But what happens for a circuit for like this?
As you can see, I...
Homework Statement
consider the cascading of two non identical amplifiers stages, each having a lowpass STC frequency response. STage 1 has a low freqency gain of ALF1 and a 3 dB frequency of f1. Stage 2 has a low frequency gain of ALF2 and a 3 dB frequency of f2. Derive a polynomial...
Hi
I was starting to read up on Op Amps and near the beginning they said that current flowing into an Op Amp equals current going out (output current + 2 input current + 2 source current = 0) on the basis of KCL. I'm confused because I thought KCL only applied for all currents entering and...
Hi guys I really need some help to finish this on time,
1. A circuit with V volts and a 2 ohm resistor and a 2mH inductor and a 500uF capacitor in series.
There is a graph of current through circuit over time, starting at 0 current icnreases to 20 amps in 1 mS stays there for 1 ms then goes...
Homework Statement
Hi! I've to try and solve "use two opamp integrators to solve the differental acceleration of an object falling under the force of gravity d^2y/dt^2 = 10"
Homework Equations
Vout = 1/Rc * integral (Vin dt)
The Attempt at a Solution
I'm really stuck as to...
Homework Statement
http://i8.photobucket.com/albums/a45/bahester9/opamps1.jpg
Homework Equations
I know I can use KCL to solve at a node if I was looking for like a voltage. But I'm not sure really about the current, Ix.
The Attempt at a Solution I know that Ix has to somehow be...
hi
I've been set a project to test the limitations of the ideal op amp when applied to the real ones, and its doing my head in, if any of you could help me figure this one out i'd be very thankful.
the first thing I'm confused about is the input offset voltage:
i know its the voltage...
I have a question regarding finding the transfer functions when dealing with op amps. I do not understand the steps towards going from a general op amp circuit towards getting an the transfer function where you can draw the bode plots for magnitude and phase. Could anyone give me a general...
I had electronics last semester, and we went over some digital briefly at the end. I think we learned a bit about digital circuits using diodes and something about transitortransitor logic?
Anyway, at the time I was wondering if there was a way to use Op Amps to create digital circuits.