What is Rays: Definition and 315 Discussions

The Tampa Bay Rays are an American professional baseball team based in St. Petersburg, Florida. The Rays compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the American League (AL) East division. Since its inception, the team's home venue has been Tropicana Field.
Following nearly three decades of unsuccessfully trying to gain an expansion franchise or enticing existing teams to relocate to the Tampa Bay Area, an ownership group led by Vince Naimoli was approved on March 9, 1995. The Tampa Bay Devil Rays began play in the 1998 Major League Baseball season.
Their first decade of play, however, was marked by futility; they finished in last place in the AL East in all but the 2004 season, when they finished second to last. Following the 2007 season, Stuart Sternberg, who had purchased controlling interest in the team from Vince Naimoli two years earlier, changed the team's name from "Devil Rays" to "Rays", now meant to primarily refer to a burst of sunshine rather than a manta ray, though a manta ray logo remains on the uniform sleeves. The 2008 season saw the Tampa Bay Rays post their first winning season, their first AL East championship, and their first American League Pennant (defeating the rival Boston Red Sox in the ALCS), though they lost to the Philadelphia Phillies in that year's World Series. Since then, the Rays have played in the postseason five more times, winning the American League pennant again in 2020 and losing to the Los Angeles Dodgers in that year's World Series.
The Tampa Bay Rays' chief rivals are the Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees. Regarding the former, there have been several notable on-field incidents. The Rays also have an intrastate interleague rivalry with the National League (NL)'s Miami Marlins (originally the Florida Marlins), whom they play in the Citrus Series.
Through 2020, the Rays' all-time record is 1,726-1,896 (.477).

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  1. Graham87

    Troubleshooting Nuclear Reactions: Decay, Gamma Rays & More

    The problem comes with solutions. However, I dont get the 3 steps in the solutions. Why do they calculate decay for 120min in step 3? And why is only the daughter nuclide relevant and no granddaughter? There might be something lacking in my knowledge about nuclear reactions. Also, I don't know...
  2. Haorong Wu

    MATLAB Can Light Rays Cross Near a BH? - Simulated w/ Matlab

    Hi. I use Matlab to simulate that two parallel light rays pass near a Kerr BH. The angular momentum of the BH points to the ##z## direction. The ##z## components of the start points of the two rays are ## 1\times 10^3 ~\rm{m}## and ##- 1\times 10^3 ~\rm{m}##, respectively. The result, as shown...
  3. osaplabs_sja

    A Can any thin materials protect a Mars spacecraft from gamma rays?

    Astronauts heading towards Mars (and hopefully return) will need protection against the harmful effects of gamma rays in space for this long trip. Apparently, much shorter trips have not caused enough bodily harm to be of much concern. However, a 6-month or longer trip might be a real problem. I...
  4. Viona

    I Characteristic X Rays: Understanding Atom Reversion

    I was reading about characteristic x rays. I have a question I did not find an answer for it in the book (Concepts of Modern Physics-Sixth Edition-Arthur Beiser) or in the internet search. My question is: How do the atom in the target (in the x ray production experiment) go to the normal state...
  5. sol47739

    I Postive rays in cathode ray tube experiments?

    I read in the following book A history of the sciences by Stephen F. Mason. About the discovery of the electron the write what I attached in the picture. I wonder what do these positive rays traveling in the opposite direction they talk about consist of? Some ions or what? I understand that the...
  6. I

    Why is perforated cathode used in the discovery of anode rays?

    I really tried to solve it a lot and the info that I gathered is : Electrons or protons can be ABSORBED by cathode or anode so there must be some hole in the electrode for the rays to pass. These electrons ionize the gas and those positive gas ions move towards cathode.
  7. Zuzana

    A GZK Limit: Exploring Cosmic Ray Energies Beyond 10^20 eV

    Hello, I would like to ask, why there cannot be detected cosmic rays with energies higher than ~ 10^20 eV, i.e. beyond the GZK limit? Thanks a lot in advance for the answer.
  8. J

    Partitioning 5 Rays: Nonempty Intersection

    I need to show the following thing: Given a collection of 5 rays (half-lines) in the plane, show that it can be partitioned into two disjoint sets such that the intersection of the convex hulls of these two sets is nonempty.
  9. B

    I What is really happening in collimation of rays?

    Ok so if an object is placed at the focal point of a convex lens, it will have it's rays collimated -- which I assumed to mean that all rays would end up parallel to each other. But then, I saw this diagram of a simple compound microscope from Hecht "Optics" 5th ed: And I noticed that all...
  10. P

    I Exploring Cathode Rays & Anodes: A Visual Guide

    The attached diagram shows the cathode rays moving in straight lines forward but the anode is beneath them?
  11. S

    I Are some cosmic rays iron nuclei?

    I had thought that cosmic rays were all protons, but this article says sometimes it's iron. https://getpocket.com/explore/item/let-s-colonize-titan
  12. S

    I Are cosmic rays only neutrinos?

    I had thought that cosmic rays were protons, but this NY Times article seems to say that cosmic rays are neutrinos: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/30/science/neutrinos-lake-baikal.html
  13. Greg Bernhardt

    Half a century of global decline in oceanic sharks and rays

  14. E

    B The physics explanation of ~bendy~ rays

    Take a medium with ##n = n(y)## and define the functional as usual$$T[y] = \int_{\mathcal{C}} \frac{ds}{cn^{-1}} = \frac{1}{c} \int_{x_1}^{x_2} dx \, n(y)\sqrt{1+ y'^2}$$along ##\mathcal{C}## between ##\mathcal{P}_1 \overset{.}{=} (x_1, y_1)## and ##\mathcal{P}_2 \overset{.}{=} (x_2, y_2)##...
  15. R

    B Distance covered when 22 MeV gamma rays travel through air

    Both alpha and beta radiations can only travel short distances through air as they're not as penetrating as gamma radiations. How long gamma radiations with 22 MeV energy can travel in air? Is it meters, kilometers, miles, etc. Is there a difference between a lower energy gamma ray and a higher...
  16. R

    B Which one is more efficient in generating high energy Gamma rays?

    According to https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a351472.pdf the big pulsed power accelerator, HERMES III, generate electron beam with peak energy at 22 MeV and average electron energy at 16 MeV and the resulting photon energy which is bremsstrahlung radiation is approximately 2 MeV...
  17. R

    Differences between X-rays and Gamma rays

    Some people said if it is originated from electrons then it is X-ray but if it is originated from the nucleus it is Gamma ray. But people can produced X-rays and Gamma rays by Bremsstrahlung process and in Bremsstrahlung process it is resulted from decelerating or braking electrons. So, Gamma...
  18. R

    B Gamma rays over very large areas

    According to this link https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a351472.pdf, HERMES III at Sandia National Labs can generate very large area gamma rays by converting the electron beam into bremsstrahlung radiations after hitting the tantalum target. As we can see in the isodose contours in the...
  19. R

    How far do gamma rays extend from an accelerator?

    According to https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/7234564, the HERMES III which stand for High Energy Radiation Megavolt Electron Source accelerator is "capable of delivering a peak dose of ~100 krad (CaF2) over a useful area of ~1000cm2 (area where dose is greater than 50% of the peak dose) in a...
  20. PainterGuy

    I Beta and gamma rays from radium

    Hi: Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radium Question 1: I think that the first statement suggests that it's the emission of alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays which raises the temperature of radium sample; possibly on their way out from the sample, those particles and gamma...
  21. Endeavour13

    I Suggestion for resources about cosmic rays

    I am a Junior UG student in Physics. We have an introductory course on astrophysics. It includes modules on cosmic ray and magnetic field in galaxies. I have a basic acquaintance with QM (up to Hydrogen atom problem). I also had a course on basic particle physics. (Very rudimentary. Mainly intro...
  22. jisbon

    Light rays passing through a glass prism

    Hi all! Breaking down the question bit by bit: AC is coated with a silver film which acts as a mirror - Okay, nothing as of yet right..? A light beam is an incident onto prism at Point Q such that angle PQB is 40 degrees - This means that my incident angle is 50 degrees as shown below...
  23. E

    I Cosmic Rays could reveal if we're actually living in a simulation?

    https://www.businessinsider.com/we-may-be-living-in-the-matrix-2013-11 can an experiment with cosmic rays prove or disprove the hypothesis of simulation?
  24. N

    B What happens when gamma rays with ultra-high energies interact with matter?

    What sort of properties would you expect from gamma rays, as you increase their energy, and why? Would they penetrate high Z-matter more easily? What would be the outcome of the interactions? Do you expect photoelectric and Compton scattering processes to become negligible, and the dominant...
  25. N

    Question about proportional counters for gamma rays

    I understand the concept that a more energetic photon would cause more ionization events and therefore we can estimate the original energy of the incident photon. But what I don't get is that in practice, you don't get one photon entering the detector at a time, you get a whole bunch of them...
  26. D

    I Can Laser Pulses Produce MeV Gamma Rays?

    i already know radioactivity produces gamma rays. Are there other ways to produce gamma rays in a laboratory, without radioactive substances?
  27. I

    I What would happen if wavelength could go higher than gamma rays

    We can see wave length that get compress and get higher in height when they get high energy so how would wavelength react and it how it would look like when it gets high amount of energy(like infinite energy)?
  28. B

    Jenkins-White Optics: Relation between Prism/Deviation Angle and Rays

    I've tried to attempt the first part of the problem(spent over an hour on this) as second part could be easily optained with some calculus ,I asked my friend but alas nobody could conjure the solution to this dangerous trigonometric spell. It was just pages and pages of concoction of...
  29. S

    Has a change in the cosmic rays hitting Earth been causing Global Warming?

    I found this link off of a politically charged website (of the persuasion to deny that Global Warming exists), so I am apt to be skeptical. (The website is hosted at the Northern Marianna Islands, making me even more suspicious.)...
  30. D

    How short can electromagnetic radiation become? Shorter than gamma rays?

    is there some physical limit on the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation? Can there be radiation shorter than gamma rays?
  31. JD_PM

    I Simultaneity of two light rays in different reference frames

    I am studying the fact that two events that are simultaneous in a frame aren't (in general) simultaneous in another. The lamp is equidistant from the two ends. When the light is switched on an observer on the train sees how both light rays hit the back and the front of the train...
  32. C

    I The Sun's excess gamma rays and strange dips

    Any theory what could be causing the excess gamma ray and the strange dips in the sun? https://www.quantamagazine.org/gamma-ray-data-reveal-surprises-about-the-sun-20190501/ "A decade’s worth of telescope observations of the sun have revealed a startling mystery: Gamma rays, the highest...
  33. TheBigDig

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    So I worked out the first part and obtained ##E_1 = 478.8MeV##, ##E_2 = 459.4MeV## and ##p = 0.49 MeV/c## but I can't quite wrap my head around the second part. Normally, I'd use the equation for s but I'm confused since I don't know the angle between the gamma rays.
  34. C

    Difference between O and E rays to S and P polarizations

    The problem relates to birefringence and crystal optics. What is the difference between O and E rays to S and P polarizations? Is O-ray just a different name to S-polarization and E-ray a different name to P-polarization? if not, what is the difference?-
  35. P

    A Notes on Cosmic rays - wave interactions in plasmas

    Dear community, I am Pedro de la Torre, now doing my PhD on Cosmic ray propagation. Now, I have started to study reacceleration due to interactions of CR with plasma waves. My problem is that I do not find neither a good book or any kind of review with a detailed demonstration on the...
  36. K

    I Light rays don't interfere with each other

    In the ray model of light we learn that two light rays don't interfere with one another. That is one crosses the path of the other and both follow their path as they were doing before. In terms of quantum theories could we say that in this situation the electromagnetic field is not interacting...
  37. S

    B Double Slit Experiment with Gamma Rays

    Hi I was wondering what would happen if you use Gamma Rays in a double slit experiment. Would you see the same interference pattern?
  38. Ramazan Duzgun

    Stopping Light in Air: Myth or Reality?

    is it possible, i mean can we hold it at a certain distance we want ?
  39. KangOfCanada

    A How do Fusion/Fission Gamma Rays Compare?

    My concerns are all about how much shielding would be needed for a nuclear reactor. Would aneutronic He3-He3 fusion produce less energetic photons than fission to be more easily used in more mobile reactors? Obviously very few neutrons are made in this reaction so that leaves the high energy...
  40. S

    "Critical" in reflected and refracted rays

    Hello, I didnt understand what the "critical" in critical rays are. I didnt understand the meaning. Can someone help, please. Thanks.
  41. D

    I Explanation for the hyperbolic array of light rays.

    Hello, Recently, a solar power tower plant was founded next to where I work. Since it's the tallest object in the area, it's quite hard to miss it. But apart from that, every morning the reflected light is arranged in a hyperbolic- like way, as you can see in the picture. Does anyone have a...
  42. Twigg

    I 3rd Order Aberrations from Paraxial Rays?

    Hey all, In chapter 6 section 3 of Modern Optical Engineering, 4th edition, by Warren J. Smith, it claims you can calculate all the 3rd order aberrations by considering two paraxial rays. I'm trying to convince myself of this and not having much success. Unfortunately, the article that this...
  43. H

    Why do rays of light from the Sun appear to be angled?

    When the sun's rays break through a cloud there appears a radiating pattern but if one drew a line through these rays they would meet much closer than the distance to the sun. How come?
  44. f95toli

    A Info about cosmic rays affecting microchips

    Sorry for the vague title; I couldn't think of a better one. I have been looking for information about how frequently one could expect cosmic rays (of all types) to hit and be absorbed by a piece of silicone (say 5x5x0.5 mm3) at the surface of the Earth. But haven't had much success. I know...
  45. Q

    How light rays from a fireplace wood fire on Earth compare to the Sun's fire?

    While lying in front of a 500 degree woodfire, I wonder if besides light and heat that we take as ordinary does it also have ultraviolet rays of light like the sun?? What are the types from light from an ordinary on Earth fire?? Would they be beneficial to plants as main light source?, would...
  46. N

    B Are the Sun's rays reaching us always parallel?

    My book says that the Sun's rays reaching us are always parallel. See this image Are the Sun's rays reaching us always **PARALLEL rays**? I will be thankful for help!
  47. Sebastiaan

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    Lets say you have your basic fusion reaction D + H → He3 + γ + 5.49 MeV Now exactly how much of the energy is carried away by the gamma ray and how much by the Alfa particle ?
  48. R

    Could there be life that thrives in gamma rays?

    I am not sure if this is entirely correct, but first I am going to say that life on Earth mostly thrives in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and perhaps some infrared and ultraviolet (for some creatures), because it is the frequency range that they were the most exposed to...
  49. RyuuJin

    A What Causes a Shift in Cosmic Ray Distribution on Earth?

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  50. Q

    Angular spread of light rays passing through a prism

    Homework Statement The problem asks: The index of refraction for violet light in silica flint glass is 1.66, and the index of refraction for red light is 1.62. What is the angular spread of visible light passing through a prism of apex angle 60 degrees if the angle of incidence is 50.03...