What is Windows: Definition and 438 Discussions

Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several proprietary graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and marketed by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Microsoft Windows families include Windows NT and Windows IoT; these may encompass subfamilies, (e.g. Windows Server or Windows Embedded Compact) (Windows CE). Defunct Microsoft Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone.
Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer (PC) market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984.
Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh (eventually settled in court in Microsoft's favor in 1993). On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system in all countries. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones. In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25% that of Android devices sold. This comparison, however, may not be fully relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows (that are comparable to competitors) show one third market share, similar to that for end user use.
As of May 2021, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10, version 21H1. The most recent version for server computers is Windows Server, version 21H1. A specialized version of Windows also runs on the Xbox One and Xbox Series X/S video game consoles.

View More On Wikipedia.org
  1. G

    Software for calculting DFT and Raman spectra for Windows

    Dear Friends! Please recommend a program for performing DFT calculations on Windows. It should also be capable of calculating Raman spectra. It would be highly desirable if the program will be free. Sincerely, Aleksandr
  2. F

    Python Docker containers in Windows "look" like VMs...

    Hello, I am trying to better understand how Docker works under the hood in Windows...I get the difference between virtual machines (guest OS on top of a host OS) and containers (which work with the host OS)...The Docker desktop installation process seems to automatically install both Hyper V...
  3. H

    Riddance to Windows 10 Malware

    A week ago my Windows 10 laptop overheated and decayed. I bought a new one with Windows 11. The first thing I did was download a video. Ads pop up and I'm often redirected to sleazy sites selling something. That never happened before. This happens with Chrome, Firefox, and DuckDuckGo. I...
  4. Nik_2213

    Identifying 'Identical' USB devices in Windows...

    I'm sorry, my research has drawn blank, I may just be asking question the wrong way... If you connect several identical USB webcams to Windows as-is, directly to PC or via USB multi-port whatsit, the OS seems unable to distinguish them beyond the second. Is there a practicable way to readily...
  5. kolleamm

    Automate clicks and typing on Windows apps without source code?

    I want to create a program that can type and click for me on any Windows app without access to the source code. This would save a lot of time doing boring and repetitive tasks. Is this possible?
  6. berkeman

    Fixing Annoying Word/Excel Windows Problem

    This has bugged me for a while, so I finally was trying to figure out how to disable this "feature" today. But Microsoft Help and Google haven't led to any fixes yet. If I have a Word file open and minimize it, and then open another Word file, the first file window also pops back up and ends...
  7. Doc Al

    Need a free backup program for Windows

    I'm looking for a free (and simple to use!) program to do differential backups of my files on my Windows laptop. I don't want anything encrypted, just something that can compare files to the backup and add/subtract whatever's been changed. Years ago, I used "Karen's Replicator". Not sure if...
  8. K

    My user account picture in windows 11

    I'd like to get the location of this image in my system
  9. Dex_

    Apple's new ARM CPUs vs, classic x86 for physics?

    Hi it's my first post here! I'm in my second year of my degree and looking to replace my computer. The new M-series chips seem like a better deal, however I am nervous that some software that might not be compatible with the ARM architecture. For more context on my workflow I do quite a bit of...
  10. Doc Al

    Switching off Windows 11 S-mode

    My question: Is there any downside to switching off Win 11 S-mode? I'm looking for a new, not too expensive, Windows laptop. It seems like most of the laptops have Windows 11 S-mode installed. With S-mode, apps not from the MS store cannot be used, making such a laptop useless for me. (I...
  11. gmax137

    BASIC programming package -- free downloads for Windows 11?

    I used to enjoy writing little programs in BASIC when it was included in Windows. I guess it hasn't been included for a long long time. Is there a BASIC package available for download that would run on my Windows 11 PC?
  12. H

    Need To Do Fancy Windows File Manipulation

    I have about one hundred folders. Each folder has both .jpg and .mp4 files. I want to delete all the .jpgs but not the .mp4s. I don't want to do each folder by hand. Does anyone know the Windows/DOS command that will do this. Just moving the files depending on file type is enough.
  13. M

    How secure are unofficial MS Windows copies?

    Hello. I wonder about unoffial operating system for our devices. First, I want to start from Windows. Windows have unofficial version. These are probably called "pirate" or "cracked". I guess these are prepared by hackers but for which reason? Do hackers care those who cannot afford to buy...
  14. T

    B Mars Probe gets Windows 98 Update, after 19 years

  15. shivajikobardan

    Comp Sci How do I free up tcp port 80 in windows 10?

    Studying a totally random subtopic in a subject out of nowhere called virtual hosting. I need to learn to configure its types(port based, name based, ip based). this kind of answer is what we are expected to write in exam. tbh i didn't find anything like that. so i am watching this video...
  16. WMDhamnekar

    C program could not be compiled and executed at Windows command prompt

    /* Write a c program to convert given number of days to a measure of time * given in years, weeks and days. For example 375 days is equal to 1 year * 1 week and 3 days (ignore leap year) */ #include stdio.h #define DAYSINWEEK 7 void main() { int ndays, year, week, days...
  17. Astronuc

    Screen flickering with Windows 11 Home on new computer

    My wife just bought a new Dell computer because the HD on her old computer went bad. The computer is a minitower. She is using the old VGA monitor through an HDMI adaptor (using HDMI to VGA cable). Could that be the problem? Occasionally, the monitor screen goes blue and she has to restart...
  18. sysprog

    Windows, Unix and Macs Oh My (All OSes are Welcome)

    Computation history is cluttered with variants, by-roads, successes and failures. I really like UNIX/C as an engineer and scientist but mainly use Windows for home computing. ##-## @Klystron
  19. Melbourne Guy

    Any suggestions for an open source Windows 10 disk encryption app

    The summary says it all, really, but in addition, I've done a lot of googling and am finding it hard to identify trustworthy options. LibreCrypt, DiskCryptor and VeraCrypt are candidates, but I have not used any of these tools so am wary of jumping in and finding that I have bricked my PC.
  20. Sandeep T S

    How to install FORM (for high-energy physics) on Windows?

    Is anybody aware of how to install FORM(hep) for symbolic calculation? Is that support on windows? Can you share any pdf about installation
  21. Arman777

    The status of the previously created ubuntu folders in windows linux s

    A couple of months ago, I had created a WSL1 and used the Ubuntu app under the username void Later on, I have decided to upgrade it to WSL2, but I have encountered an error while upgrading it. Later on, I have discovered that it was due to BIOS virtualization settings. In any case, I have...
  22. LorenzoIvan78

    How to fix Audio issue in windows 10?

    Hi Everyone! I am facing issue of The Audio Service is not running in my system whenever I play any music or video. Anybody knows what is the issue behind it? My Window is updated but still I am facing this issue.
  23. Haorong Wu

    How to Stop Windows Update From Automatically Rebooting?

    Even I turn the damn update off in service and group policy, it turned itself on last night! It rebooted my computer while my program is still running! It ruined my last three days! :cry::cry::cry:
  24. W

    Can You Recover a Forgotten Win10 Password Without Resetting?

    Hi All, A friend has forgotten her password and is unable to log in. Just clarifying, I have knoen her for long and I am sure it is her PC, on which I have worked a few times, so it is not a rando who may have stolen a PC. Is it possible to login without resetting to factory condition?
  25. Y

    Chromebook vs windows vs Apple MacOS

    I am not asking about what is the difference between, I mainly interested in the popularity of them. I worked in the high tech industry, only one I saw people using was Windows, I only saw people in graphics design using Apple, never seen Chromebook. The school of my grand daughter gives every...
  26. StevieTNZ

    Getting rid of a new weather icon on my Windows 10 taskbar

    I installed a security update for Windows 10 and now I'm stuck with this awful icon on my taskbar: How do I remove it? Many thanks Stevie
  27. Arman777

    Python Running a Github File on VS code for windows 10- File system problem (

    I am doing a cosmological work and I need to run a code form this github page https://github.com/ja-vazquez/SimpleMC I download the whole repository as .zip file and I inserted into my desktop. Then I opened it through vs code and this is how it looks like The problem is that, when I run...
  28. Frabjous

    Frost preferentially forms on non-vertical car windows?

    Going out to my car this morning, I noticed that frost preferentially formed on non-vertical windows. I can come up with three explanations 1) non-vertical windows are dirtier, providing more nucleation points 2) horizontal vs vertical boundary layer effect 3) gravity driven vertical diffusion...
  29. Rzbs

    Adobe Connect problem -- Windows nesting infinitely....

    I am not sure where I must post this thread ... I want to know when this (see attached screenshot; infinite windows are creating!) happen in adobe connect? And why?
  30. Wrichik Basu

    Windows 7 desktop freezing every now and then

    We fixed our Windows 7 32-bit desktop a few weeks back by buying a new PSU for it (see this thread for details). Now a new problem has started: the PC freezes every now and then. 1. When the PC is powered on, it works fine for some time. Then the problem starts 2. Suppose I am moving the mouse...
  31. W

    LaTeX Quality Latex editors for Windows?

    Hi, doing some research for free Latex editors for Windows 10. I did an online search but would like to know the experiences of people with Latex editors, if any. Thanks.
  32. DaveC426913

    Windows equivalent of TSR? Getting Windows programs to interact

    I have a data entry program in Windows 10 that has no API to interface with it directly. I have a lot of data to enter manually, which is very slow. Assuming I can get that data into a digital form and store it in a .CSV file or clipboard, how can I write a utility app that will sit over top of...
  33. M

    Create a bootable USB for Windows?

    Hi PF! I am currently on an Intel-based mac. I have an AMD desktop currently running linux on one SSD, but this desktop also has an HDD, which I'd like to boot with Windows 10 Education (since it's free for my school). How can I prepare a USB bootable drive so that I can use the HDD for...
  34. phinds

    Anybody having trouble w/ Windows Explorer search?

    I have a serious problem w/ Windows 10 Explorer's search capability and when I look for solutions w/ Google, I see that apparently a lot of people have very recently begun to experience problems w/ the search capability (apparently due to a recent Windows "fix") but MY problem is never...
  35. L

    SSD crash after Windows 10 update on Lenovo Thinkpad X1 Carbon 5th Gen

    Hi all, I have a laptop Lenovo Thinkpad X1 Carbon 5th Gen (Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-7500U CPU @ 2.70GHz 2.90 GHz, 8 GB RAM). It was bought with Windows 10 OS installed on SSD 512 GB (model of the disk is SSDPEKKF512G7L). Since the 1st running, the laptop was constantly heating and fan made much...
  36. Wrichik Basu

    Have you faced these odd problems with Windows 10 Professional v1909?

    Windows 10 v1909 is a feature update rather than a security update. Although it was not compulsory to upgrade, I decided to do it - getting something for free, who wants to decline it? I plugged in the laptop and it installed overnight. In the morning, I found that the upgrade was complete...
  37. Wrichik Basu

    Shutting down Windows 10 from CMD takes more time than usual....

    Just like a Linux computer can be made to shut down from the terminal using sudo poweroff, a Windows 10 PC can be shut down from the command prompt using shutdown /s. I have, however, seen that Windows 10 takes more time to shut down if the command is triggered from CMD. In my laptop, it...
  38. berkeman

    Windows 10 Question: Different check mark fields on icons on the desktop

    Sorry if this was already addressed in the other Windows 10 thread. What do the different check mark fields (round and square) mean in the icons on my new Windows 10 laptop's desktop? My Google search only turned up results on "green checkmarks" that related to Office 365 synching? Thanks <<...
  39. C

    I Can windows frost over in space?

    I thought about this pretty hard, can windows frost over in space? I'm pretty sure they don't or can't after giving it a bit of thought. This is just a curiosity of mine. So first I believe the correct question that we're trying to answer is: Can a window get colder than interior air faster...
  40. J

    Problems Using Windows 10 Home mRemoteNG to remote into Windows 7 Pro

    Hi, I'm remoting from a Windows 10 Home laptop into my office Windows 7 Pro desktop using mRemoteNG on the Windows 10 laptop. I get a super tiny mouse in the remote session. Back in the laptop all is fine. Its so small and annoying! Everything else is fine, but the teeny mouse is a real...
  41. Michal Fishkin

    How to install PLUTO on Windows

    Hi! I'm a first-year engineering student. I'm working on a project and was having trouble getting some of the software. I was hoping someone in this forum knew what I was dealing with and could help me out. I would really appreciate it. :) The code is called PLUTO. It's found here...
  42. Y

    How does solar radiation contribute to heat transfer through windows?

    I am doing an assignment about heat energy transfer and passive cooling. I understand that heat energy is transferred into rooms through windows by conduction, but I'm confused about if heat energy is also transferred through windows by solar radiation and where infrared radiation comes into...
  43. W

    Windows 10 HP Turns off at Random

    Hi All, I was using my Win10 HP for standard surfing ; nothing that would require intensive processing and it just turned off at random, for no apparent reason. I was unable to turn it on for a few minutes ( no response when pressing the power switch) , after which it turned on , did the POST...
  44. W

    Windows 10 Not recognizing Device (Android ZTE)

    Hi All, I am trying to transfer files from my ZTE971 Android into my Windows 10 PC. Problem is computer is not recognizing the Android when I plug it into the USB port. Strange, since it used to recognizing it without any problem just a few months back. I have checked in device manager...
  45. stoky

    Do car windows and windshields block ultraviolet light?

    I'm curious if car windshields / windows block UV (ultraviolet) light, the one from either the sun, or UV flashlights, like the Convoy S2+ Nichia 365nm.
  46. HaNguyen

    Windows 10 full disk error 100%?

    I'm using Windows 10 sometimes it is 100% full disk error, does anyone know how to fix it?
  47. A

    How to ventilate a room with no windows with one inline fan?

    Hello! I am building a recording studio which will be air tight and will need fresh air intake and stale air exhaust. I have a general question regarding which is better, using one or two inline fans for the job? I was told that that you could have one fan on the exhaust duct which can pull out...
  48. I

    Is There a Reliable Mac Emulator for Windows 10?

    Are there any working Mac emulators that are simple to set up and use? I have had a look through google but there is not a lot
  49. kyphysics

    Windows 10 Update - Caused Loop (Need a Computer )

    I have an ASUS X540S (a cheap $199 priced) laptop and it asked me to do an update a few days ago. I agreed and left it running to go to dinner. When I came back, it was in some weird screen asking me to select a language. I chose English and the next thing I know it was in some sort of loop...
  50. Arman777

    Download Linux on Windows - Step-by-Step Solutions

    I am trying to download a linux on windows but I couldn't find a site. I tried to download from Oracle VM but I couldn't make it work. I need help. Thanks