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## Homework Statement

Determine the closed loop transfer functions of the systems shown below:

## Homework Equations

Standard block diagram algebra.

## The Attempt at a Solution

I've moved the take off point such that the diagram now looks like:

I am having difficulty determining G

_{1}(s). The solution given is

G

_{1}(s) = 4(s + 2) + 1 = 4s + 9

But it is not obvious to me where this is coming from. Taking G

_{1}(s) as given, I am able to solve the rest of the question without issue.

Any help appreciated.