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As part of a Uni project I need to calculate the torque required to rotate one pipe relative to another stationary pipe so the two ends of the pipes are in contact with each other and therefore the rotation and the axial force of the rotation pipe causes friction and melt.

I know at first, when there is no melt and the surfaces are dry, the friction force F is

F=N*μ and therefore Torque, T= ∫ Nμdr (with boundary conditions of r inner and r outer (sorry, not sure how to put them on in equ))

But what I am unsure about is how to calculate Torque when friction has caused the pipes to melt and therefore im guessing the torque is dependent on the melt.

Any ideas would be greatly appreciated.

Thanks in advanced, Rob

#### Attachment is pic of configuration of pipes ####

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# Calculation of torque in friction welding

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