# What is Calculation: Definition and 1000 Discussions

A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results. The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetical calculation of using an algorithm, to the vague heuristics of calculating a strategy in a competition, or calculating the chance of a successful relationship between two people.
For example, multiplying 7 by 6 is a simple algorithmic calculation. Estimating the fair price for financial instruments using the Black–Scholes model is a more complex algorithmic calculation.
Statistical estimations of the likely election results from opinion polls also involve algorithmic calculations, but produces ranges of possibilities rather than exact answers.
To calculate means to determine mathematically in the case of a number or amount, or in the case of an abstract problem to deduce the answer using logic, reason or common sense. The English word derives from the Latin calculus, which originally meant a small stone in the gall-bladder (from Latin calx). It also meant a pebble used for calculating, or a small stone used as a counter in an abacus (Latin abacus, Greek abax). The abacus was an instrument used by Greeks and Romans for arithmetic calculations, preceding the slide-rule and the electronic calculator, and consisted of perforated pebbles sliding on iron bars.

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1. ### Help calculating this limit please

Hi, I have problems with task b, more precisely with the calculation of the limit value: By the way, I got the following for task a ##f^{(n)}(x)=(-1)^{n+1} \frac{(n-1)}{x^n}## Unfortunately, I have no idea how to calculate the limit value for the remainder element, since ##n## appears in...
2. ### Resistivity calculation from two-probe resistance measurement of sheet

I'm really not sure. Obviously I can get the units right with Resistance * thickness, but I assume there's a correction factor here that I can't find anywhere?
3. ### Measurements Calculation Problem

I have done this problem three times now, and keep coming up with an answer that is a factor of 10 off from the answer in the solutions manual. The way I'm doing it is MUCH different than how they did it, so I can't use their method to see where I'm going wrong. I want to find out what I'm...
4. ### Does the Modified Collatz Conjecture Always End in 1, 5, or 17?

Did some calculations and with 3×-1 i Always get 5.is this correct?
5. ### B Question about the fundamental theorem of calculus

Hello everyone, I've been brushing up on some calculus and had some new questions come to mind. I notice that most proofs of the fundamental theorem of calculus (the one stating the derivative of the accumulation function of f is equal to f itself) only use a limit where the derivative is...
6. ### Please check my calculations with these complex numbers

$$Re(e^{2iz}) = Re(\cos(2z)+i\sin(2z))=\cos(2z)$$$$e^{i^3} = e^{-i}$$ $$\ln (\sqrt 3 + i)^3=\ln(2)+i(\dfrac {\pi}{6}+2k\pi)$$ Can't I simplify these more? Are they correct? Final one:## (1+3i)^{\frac 1 2}## Can I write in in term of ##\sin x## and ##\cos x## then use ##(\cos x+i\sin x)^n=\cos...
7. ### Help calculating force required to flange a cylinder

Need help in calculating the force required to flange a cylinder outwards around the perimeter by approx. 5mm. Cylinder is either Aluminum or standard Mild Steel. Thank you.
8. ### B Calculating shaded area: I'm getting discrepancies between methods

**EDIT** Everything looked good in the preview, then I posted and saw that some stuff got cropped out along the right edge...give me some time and I'll fix it. Hello all, I"m trying to calculate shaded area, that is, the area bounded by the curves ##x=y^{2}-2, x=e^{y}, y=-1##, and ##y=1##...
9. ### Using energy considerations to determine speed

$$K_i + U_i = K_f + U_f$$ $$K_i = \frac 1 2 m(15)^2$$ $$U_i = 196m$$ $$U_f = 0$$ $$K_f = K_i + U_i - U_f$$ $$=\frac {15^2} 2 m + 196m$$ $$=\frac 1 2(15^2m + 98m)$$ $$=\frac 1 2m(15^2 + 98)$$ $$=\frac 1 2m(323)$$ $$=\frac 1 2m(17.97)^2$$ $$v=17.97 m/s$$ Not seeing where I'm...
10. ### Torque calculation based on distributive load

The following images contain the question as well as my solution. I am not sure whether my solution is correct or not. Please help.
11. ### Centrifugal Compressor: Absolute Velocity Calculation

How can I calculate the absolute velocity of air at the outlet of a centrifugal compressor if I have: Diameter of impeller RPM Slip factor I've been reading for weeks and cannot seem to find the answer to this question. For anyone who is familiar with the subject, I'm sure you know about the...
12. ### Circuit calculation practice: voltage dividers, series, parallel

Hi, I'm teaching Engineering (honors) and want to drill the students on series, parallel resistors in circuits and voltage dividers. does anybody a have a worksheet with lots of samples? Thanks!
13. ### B Confused about this force calulation in Resnick Halliday Krane Electrostatics

I'm confused in the calculation for R/2. The author took in account that the charge will change by a factor 1/8. But how does it show that the coloumbic force will become 1/8th. The distance will also reduce by half shouldn't that also be taken into account? Or am I missing something here?
14. ### Trying to calculate motor kW/reduction drive for lift of 100kg at 0.8m /sec

Hi need to calculate 240v/315v motor size attached to reduction gearbox (reduction unknown) to lift a weight of 100kg on cable drum .8mtr/sec. Drum dia not determined yet. motor size not determined yet. any help is greatly appreciated as this seems to be out of depth of many motor drum winch...
15. ### Is the Final Velocity of a Fly Impacted by an Elephant's Mass?

My solution was that the final velocity of the fly is equal to the mass of the elephant divided by the mass of the fly, and then multiplies by the delta in the elephant's velocity. My teacher said it was the wrong answer and that the calculations are presumably pretty long
16. ### Trying to resolve a volume calculation

Hi all, I've made errors in my calculations and need help. I'm trying to calculate the volume of a layer above sea level to the height of Flight Level 300 i.e. 30,000 feet. Next, I want to subtract the volume of land within that layer. Here are my calculations. Purely for the sake of my...
17. ### B Number of atoms in the Universe

hi, how do we calculated the number of atoms at the start of universe i.e, after big bang?

19. ### What is the derivative of ln(x)^e ?

Can't figure it out, here's a screenshot with better typography.
20. ### Conservation of Momentum Calculation Woes!

Alleyway kick The kicker weighs approximately 64kg or 140lb and the gentlemen holding the air shield is approximately 73kg or 160lb. How far does the kickee travel before hitting the chair and boxes and what speed is he travelling at? The practice kick prior to the actual kick puts the men...
21. ### Dose calculation for oscilloscope

If pulse source output is recorded by a detector on oscilloscope, is it possible to calculate dose from this output voltage pulse?
22. ### Calculation of the orbital period for a binary star system

Hello guys, Would it be possible to get some help on how to approach this problem? I don't really understand it. do I need to look at the orbital motion of the center of mass here or? If so how should I start? Thanks in advance.
23. ### Calculate Vout with the switch

TL;DR Summary: I need to calculate Vout when the switch Is closed and open. I need to calculate Vout when the switch Is closed and open. Is my work correct?
24. ### Calculation of Box's Acceleration on a Trailer with Friction

Question picture: My solution: Where: S is the lineforce Ff is the force as a result of friction a is the resulting acceleration F is the acting force The answear is supposed to be a=(F-2mg(mu))/(m+M) Any idea what i could have missed? Thanks for your help on beforehand!
25. ### I Prony brake calculation help (for determining engine horsepower)

I need some help here. I'm trying to determine how to use the numbers I'm getting for my pony break to determine horsepower at the axle of my engine. Right now I'm getting a reading of six pounds of torque, 4 in off of the center line of the axle at a rate of 30 rpms. Can someone help me...
26. ### Why is the work done double its expected value? (conveyer belt)

The question was this: My calculations show that the answer should be equal to work done on crate to make it reach the same velocity which is equal to 216 J but the answer given is 432 J It is believed that extra energy is needed to overcome friction but friction is an internal force and...
27. ### B Simple Combo/Permute calculation

I'm playing a Steam game called Shapez wherein the goal is to produce and deliver given shapes to the Hub by conveyor belt. In the screencap you can see resources of discs and squares and well as green and red, which are to be extracted, chopped up and recombined to form the "product"...
28. ### Bernoulli equation for calculation of water flow

Hello everyone; Please need some help to check if my calculation are correct (and if possible some explantation) Bernoulli's equation between point 1 and 3 is given by: P_1+1/2 ρv_1^2 + ρgh_1 = P_3+1/2 ρv_3^2 + ρgh_3 P_1 = P_(atm ) v_1= 0 m/s h_1= 0.875 m P_3 = P_(atm ) v_3= ? m/s h_3= 0...
29. ### Absorbed dose: organ dose manual calculation

Dear Experts . How can I calculate the absorbed dose for any organ with mathematical formulas? For example, radio nuclide Ra -223 ,organ liver, time 1 hour , activity 1MBq.What methods can I use? Is there a pdf or book about it?
30. ### How Do You Calculate Tractive Force for Accelerating a Car?

Hello all, This is my first post so please be gentle with me.. I'm trying to work my way through some tricky questions so will post them below and see if anyone can give me some pointers. The questions are: A car weighs 1305kgs and accelerates from 0 to 160km/h in 4.2s. The first question asked...
31. ### B Air tank PSI and cubic feet calculation help please

If I have a air tank that is 1 cubic feet with the pressure gauge at 0 and I pump in air to 5000 psi how many cubic feet of a 100 psi would be in that tank? Any help would be appreciated
32. ### Depth dose calculation in Geant4

I want to calculate depth dose in Geant4. I will use the TestEm11 example for this. How can I convert the output values to Gy?
33. ### I Just for fun: treadmill air conditioner efficiency calculation

What approximate portion of generated heat from being active on the treadmill, both the person on it as well as the machines themselves would be compensated/cooled if the treadmill resistances would be disabled/removed and instead 1/2 end cylinders would be connected to an air conditioner...
34. ### Pumping power calculation of a vertical closed-loop system

Hi there, I hope that somebody can help me with this.. Any response is much appreciated! Let's have a vertical closed-loop system where the fluid circulates using the pump. The temperature in both sections gradually changes (the upcomer section is heated up) so that the densities, velocities...
35. ### Calculation of activation with mesh tally in MCNPX 2.6

Hi, All! Can anyone help me to construct a card for calculation of a spatial activation? Reaction is 27Al(n,p). I used a tmesh card for calculation of neutron flux as: tmesh rmesh21:n flux cora21 190 9i 210 corb21 -10 9i 10 corc21 -10 9i 10 ergsh21 0 20 endmd Somewhere in a problem I...
36. ### Flyback Converter Magnetic Flux Calculation

Hi I am designing a flyback converter. The calculation (.jpg file) is based on Daniel W. Hart Power Electronics book. The transformer model consists only of an ideal transformer and its magnetizing inductance (or "primary inductance" in some textbooks). The datasheet of the transformer's core...
37. ### How can I troubleshoot and verify my calculations for magnetic force?

I am getting a wrong answer for part b, however part a and c both are correct : a. 0 N b = -2.91E-3 N (WRONG) c. 1.4E-4 N
38. ### Hydrocyclones- Calculation steps and separation results

Hello, I want to see if hydrocyclones can be used in a application, where we have small metall particles that we want to extract from a closed loop water system. I found a book "Chemical Engineering Design" written by Richardson, where there are some equations given that makes it possible to...
39. ### Struggling With Part C of Electric Field Calculation

I've figured out parts A and B but I'm struggling with Part C. I used the equation V = kQ1/r1 + kQ2/r2 where Q1 = -4.4e-12C ; k = 8.98755e9 r1 = 0.026 m Q2 = 27.4e-12 and r2 = .051-.026 My answer (8.329 V) is wrong but I have no idea why. Please help if you can.
40. ### Centroid calculation using integrals

Hello! Im given this function ## f:[-\pi/2,1] -> [0,1]## with f(x) = 1-x for x (0,1] and f(x) = cos(x) for x ##[-\pi/2,0] ## And im susposed to find the centroid of this function so xs and ys. For that I am given these 2 equations ( I found them in the notes) ## x_s =\frac{1}{A}...
41. ### Torque calculation for a compound pendulum

I need to write an equation for Newton's second law for the above system, where k1=k2 (both springs are the same). The red line represents a bar with m=2kg, l=2m. I know that I*α = M1 + M2 + M3 If we displace the bar by x, we get the angle of displacement theta. M1=M2=-k*x I know that...
42. ### Engineering Voltage and current calculation of circuit

I am trying to find voltages and currents of the below circuit, 3.3 -22000*I2 - 2200(I2-I3) = 0 3.3 -24200*I2 + 2200*I3 = 0 -> eq1 -(10 - I3)*1500 - (I2 - I3)*2200 = 0 -15000 + 1500*I3 - 2200*I2 + 2200*I3=0 -15000 - 2200*I2 + 3700*I3=0 -> eq2 Solving equations 1 and 2 i get I2=0.38 Amps...
43. ### Acrylic (PMMA) rotating disc tensile strength calculation

Hey folks, I've been looking around but can't piece this together as there are more than one equation and variable to take into account. My situation - I have a pmma material disc on an axis , the center hole (axis hole) is 20mm wide so a radius of 10mm, while the outer edge is at a radius of...
44. ### I Gravity of the Sun: Einstein's Calculation and Beyond

IIRC, the Sun's gravity was calculated by Einstein et-al to provide a 'focus' about 550 AU out. Current value is ~542 AU. Aside from effects due solar oblateness, frame dragging etc, may I assume this value also applies to eg neutrinos, gravitational waves etc etc ??
45. ### Work calculation for lifting a Tetrahedron-shaped object from the water

Hi, I'm calculating the work done by regular tetrahedron during taking from the water by crane (USING INTEGRALS). I don't know how bad is that solved so if anyone checks my work and gives me some advice or hints I would be very glad. Everything is written in the PDF file. There were given...
46. ### I Basic standard deviation calculation

I don’t get how they got the equation for the standard deviation. Why do they only square with the time in the denominator? Thanks!
47. ### Automotive Calculation of the reduced stiffness of a simple suspension

Hello, I have a problem with reducing a stiffness of a front suspension. Unfortunately I don't understand how to get the reduced stiffness on the right side in the picture. (k_f=k/cos^2E) Thanks in advance for your help. Many greetings, Semat10
48. ### : Calculation of Linear Bearing (Carriage) Load

Hi Guys, please please assist me! I need to pick for a project at my work linear carriages which should work at this configuration : As you can see, there is a piston which moves the plate on 4 bearings from the side (yes, I know, not the best configuration, but that's what we have given the...
49. ### Relativity Calculation: Two bodies traveling at relativistic speeds

Body 1 travels 48 light years from point A to point B at 82% of light speed. Body 2 leaves point A 33 years after Body 1 and travels the 48 light years to point B at 99.99995% of light speed. What I think I know: Body 1 takes 58 years to reach point B according to an earth observer. Body 1...
50. ### I am stuck on a calculation -- Entropy change for a compound system

Hi, Unfortunately, I have problems with the task 4 In task 3 I got the following $$T_f=T_ie^{\Delta S_i - c_i}$$ Then I proceeded as follows $$\Delta S = \Delta S_1 + \Delta S_1$$ $$\Delta S =c_1ln(\frac{T_ie^{\Delta S_i - c_i}}{T_1})+c_2ln(\frac{T_f}{T_2})$$  \Delta S...