Hello PF! I am trying to find out how the formula for the magnetic field of a dipole magnet is derived, so far I've delved into maxwell equations, but I am finding the math too complicated to read. My state's education system is very far behind, and I am not accustomed to characters and symbols that aren't x, y, integrals, dy/dx etc... From wikipedia (External magnetic field produced by a magnetic dipole moment): https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/480e19d59c139435ef3e37d6bf0145746e19fe8f What does the bold m and r represent? And how has this formula been derived? My attempts have found that this may be an integration of Coulomb's law.