# Fluid Dynamics pipeline with a venturi injector

In summary: mean the water is losing energy in order to compress the gas...which contradicts thermodynamics, specifically the impossibility of creating free energy.
Hey guys, I've been wracking my brain for a while, and thus I have landed here yet again.

My problem is the following:

Say you have a pipeline with a venturi injector, and intermittently a large tank of water with a portion of air on top -- I.e. a closed circuit communicating between the venturi and the tank. Let us of course neglect friction. In this setup the water is added and taken from the bottom of the tank, so air that is in the tank is trapped on top and incoming air becomes trapped as well.

Now, at first we have everything at rest, I.e. Nothing moving and the pressure of the air inside the tank is 1atm plus whatever the weight of the water in the pipes relatively on top of it has added. If we capped off the venturi the system is closed (let's let the pipes/tank/venturi be made of a perfect insulator so that the system is truly closed). Then let us add some kinetic energy to the water so that it travels around the circuit: nice, now we have a circuit of water and the air in the tank is still 1atm+whatever. This circling flow of water will create a depression in the venturi pipe, and if we open it up to the atmosphere then air will be injected through the pipe and travel to the tank where it will be trapped, thus increasing the pressure in the tank. This will go on until the pressure inside the system has built up sufficiently that the relative depression in the venturi tube will nevertheless be 1atm and thus no more air will be injected from the atmosphere. Neglecting friction/turbulence/whatever other forms of energy loss that are non-ideal we of course know that the water in the system will then keep circulating with its final speed until the end of time, just as it would have circulated with its initial speed until the end of time had we not opened the venturi to the atmosphere.

All fine and dandy, here is my question: is the final water speed less than the initial water speed, I.e. Has the water lost energy in order to compress the gas? Intuition leads me to think the atmosphere is doing the pushing since it is forcing itself into the depression, which necessitates an immediate compression of of the air already trapped in the tank in order to make room (water incompressible on this scale). But this seems to contradict thermodynamics, specifically the impossibility of creating free energy I.e. Creating a pressure gradient from otherwise uniform air without ourselves doing work (second law as I recall). On the other hand I have no idea how to take entropy into consideration for this process, although superficially it seems as though entropy is decreasing, which again contradicts the intuitive idea of the atmosphere spontaneously forcing itself into the depression.

Any insight you guys may have will be very much appreciated -- I hope perhaps one of you may even point me to an appropriate text (or perhaps compose it yourself if it is a matter of a couple sentences) that would educate me as to how much energy the water loses, why, at what stage etc. So far I've only come across theory dealing with fluids on their own (I.e. Incompressible or compressible flow) but never two different fluids interacting with each other along a pipeline.

Thanks!

I got dizzy trying to follow your description. A simple sketch of the problem would go a long way to clarifying your question.

Yes, sorry bout that ^^'

Attached is a simple (mostly thanks to my paint skills :/) sketch of the system at start with water velocity V1 (note we don't know the relationship between the pressure in the tank, where the water is practically stationary -- the tank should be rather large -- to that of the water in the venturi since we haven't specified the dimensions of the pipes and such. I think this is irrelevant for the discussion for now, since we are only looking at things qualitatively in terms of energy)

Now as air is sucked in through the venturi tube, eventually the pressure of the water in the injection port of the venturi will reach 1 atm and no more air will be sucked in -- equilibrium. Neglecting friction etc. what can we say about the velocity of the water at this equilibrium stage?

1. If V2<V1 then what is the physical explanation -- how is the water doing work on the atmosphere? (To meet it seems the atmosphere must be doing the work to get in the Venturi, as it is the one "pushing" -- just as it is the atmosphere doing work on the gas in a piston if the gas in the piston is at lower pressure.)

2. V2=V1 would be nice, but seems (at least to me) to contradict the 2nd law of thermo (created pressure differential from homogenous air without doing work).

3. V2>V1 doesn't make any sense so we can leave it out.

Thanks again, and let me know if there is any way to make this clearer for the reader!

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Are bumps allowed on this forum? I hope so ^^

I can provide some insights into the fluid dynamics of this system with a venturi injector. Firstly, the venturi effect is a well-known principle in fluid dynamics where a decrease in pressure occurs when a fluid flows through a narrow section of a pipe. This decrease in pressure creates a suction force that can draw in air or other gases into the system.

In the scenario described, the initial speed of the water in the closed circuit will depend on the initial conditions and the design of the system. As the water flows through the venturi, it will experience a decrease in pressure and an increase in velocity. This increase in velocity will lead to a decrease in the kinetic energy of the water, as some of it is converted into potential energy due to the increase in height.

When the venturi is opened to the atmosphere, air will be drawn into the system and trapped in the tank. This air will be compressed as the water continues to circulate, resulting in an increase in pressure. This increase in pressure will act against the flow of water, causing a decrease in the water's velocity. However, the water will still maintain a higher velocity than it initially had due to the energy input from the venturi.

In terms of thermodynamics, the increase in pressure and decrease in velocity of the water can be seen as a decrease in the system's total energy. However, this decrease is not free energy as it is a result of the work done by the venturi on the water. The air trapped in the tank is also not creating a pressure gradient on its own, but rather it is being compressed by the circulating water.

Entropy can also be considered in this system. The increase in pressure and decrease in velocity of the water can be seen as a decrease in the system's entropy, as the water is becoming more ordered. However, the air being compressed in the tank can also be seen as an increase in entropy, as the gas molecules become more disordered.

In summary, the final speed of the water will be less than the initial speed due to the increase in pressure and decrease in velocity caused by the venturi and the trapped air in the tank. This decrease in speed is not a violation of thermodynamics, as it is a result of the work done by the venturi on the water. Entropy can also be considered in this system, with both the water and the air experiencing changes in entropy. I would recommend further research into the venturi effect and the principles

## 1. What is a venturi injector in fluid dynamics?

A venturi injector is a device used in fluid dynamics to mix fluids of different densities and temperatures. It consists of a converging section, a throat, and a diverging section. As fluid flows through the converging section, its velocity increases, causing a decrease in pressure. This pressure drop creates a vacuum that draws in a second fluid from a separate source, resulting in the mixing of the two fluids in the throat section.

## 2. How does a venturi injector work?

A venturi injector works on the principle of the Bernoulli's equation, which states that as the velocity of a fluid increases, its pressure decreases. In a venturi injector, the velocity of the primary fluid increases as it flows through a narrowing section, creating a pressure drop. This pressure drop draws in a secondary fluid through a separate inlet, resulting in the mixing of the two fluids in the throat section.

## 3. What are the applications of a venturi injector in fluid dynamics?

A venturi injector has various applications in fluid dynamics, including chemical and industrial processes, water treatment, and irrigation systems. It is commonly used for mixing, dilution, aeration, and dosing of fluids. It is also used in fuel injectors in combustion engines to achieve better fuel-air mixing.

## 4. How does a venturi injector affect fluid flow in a pipeline?

A venturi injector can significantly affect fluid flow in a pipeline by altering the velocity and pressure of the fluid. As the primary fluid passes through the converging section, its velocity increases, resulting in a decrease in pressure. This pressure drop can cause changes in the flow rate and turbulence of the fluid, which can affect the overall efficiency of the pipeline.

## 5. What are the advantages of using a venturi injector in fluid dynamics?

There are several advantages to using a venturi injector in fluid dynamics, including its simple design, low maintenance, and cost-effectiveness. It also allows for accurate and controlled mixing of fluids without the need for additional pumps or mixers. Additionally, a venturi injector can be easily integrated into existing pipelines, making it a versatile tool for various applications.

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