Hi, I need clarification on the difference in head loss for turbulent flow and laminar flow. I understand how the head loss due to friction is different for the two regimes. For friction head loss, the friction factor is 64/Re for laminar flow, and a more complex formula for turbulent flow. I am interested in head loss due to things like sudden contraction, elbows, tees, pipe junctions, etc. These are often called minor losses. An equation I have come across several times is h(minor)=k(v^2/(2g)). where v=velocity, g= gravity, and k is an empirically found value unique to the source of the loss, like bends in the pipe or contractions. My questions are: is the above formula valid for laminar and turbulent flow? Does the value of k depend on the type of flow? Does turbulent and laminar flow mainly only make a difference in head loss due to friction? Thanks a bunch!