# Resistance of Electrons in Wire: Factors & Theories

• Alexander Main
In summary, Resistance is a property of the whole material and is not specific to electrons. Increasing the cross sectional area decreases resistance due to an increase in available space for electrons to move through. Electrons behave similarly near the surface and core of a wire for regular electronic components. A voltage potential moves free electrons down atoms in a wire, as they are not bound to atoms and flow through the wire.
Alexander Main
I'm not sure if this question has already been answered yet. I was curious what factors effect the resistance of electrons moving through a wire? From the formula R = p*(L/A) i see mathematically why but I'm curious to the theoretical.

Does an increase in cross sectional area decrease the resistance because there is a greater availability of free elections due to an increase in material?

Or is it the increase in area that the electrons can move through?

Do electrons behave differently near the surface of a wire versus its core?

How does a voltage potential move free electrons down the atoms in a wire? Do they move from atom to atom or flow through?

Thank you for any help or links!

Resistance is a property of the whole material, there is no "resistance of electrons".
Alexander Main said:
Does an increase in cross sectional area decrease the resistance because there is a greater availability of free elections due to an increase in material?

Or is it the increase in area that the electrons can move through?
The second description is better.
Alexander Main said:
Do electrons behave differently near the surface of a wire versus its core?
If you look extremely close the surface has some effect, but for regular electronic components this is negligible.
Alexander Main said:
How does a voltage potential move free electrons down the atoms in a wire? Do they move from atom to atom or flow through?
They "flow through" in the sense that they are not bound to atoms (those that are bound do not contribute to the current).

## 1. What is electrical resistance?

Electrical resistance is the measure of a material's ability to resist the flow of electric current through it. It is measured in ohms (Ω) and is influenced by various factors such as the material's composition, length, and temperature.

## 2. How does the length of a wire affect its resistance?

The longer the wire, the higher the resistance. This is because the longer the wire, the more atoms the electrons have to pass through, which results in more collisions and a slower flow of electric current.

## 3. What is the relationship between wire thickness and resistance?

The thicker the wire, the lower the resistance. This is because a thicker wire has more space for electrons to flow through, reducing the number of collisions and allowing for a faster flow of electric current.

## 4. How does temperature affect resistance?

As the temperature of a wire increases, its resistance also increases. This is due to the fact that as the temperature rises, the atoms in the wire vibrate more, creating more obstacles for the flow of electrons.

## 5. What are the different theories for explaining resistance in wires?

There are two main theories for explaining resistance in wires - the Drude model and the Quantum mechanical model. The Drude model explains resistance as a result of collisions between electrons and atoms in the wire, while the Quantum mechanical model takes into account the energy levels of electrons and the probability of their collisions with atoms.

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