# Robert Klauber’s second order photon propagator

• Alhaurin
In summary: Your Name]In summary, a common misconception about renormalization is that it simply removes divergences in a theory. However, it is actually a systematic technique that involves making assumptions and approximations. In the specific case of the PI_c(k^2) term in Klauber's Student Friendly Quantum Mechanics, the divergence at k^2 = 0 is removed through the process of renormalization, which rescales certain parameters in the theory. This is further explained in problem 13.5 of the solutions book. To gain a better understanding of renormalization and its application in this case, it would be beneficial to consult other sources as well.
Alhaurin

## Homework Statement

I have a question regarding Klauber's Student Friendly Quantum Mechanics, about renormalization in chapters 13 and 15. I have included all relevant equations in the attached document.

In equation 15-105 he obtains an expression for the PI_uv(k^2) term used when calculating the second order photon propagator correction, which has a divergent part, A(k,Lambda), and a convergent part, PI_c(k^2). However the "convergent" part actually diverges for the particular case k^2 = 0 (unless I am wrong in my calculations).

The problem with that is that in equation 13.52 it had been stated that the second order photon propagator D_uv(k) can be expressed as the first order propagator multiplied by 1 - eo^2 *A'(k, Lambda) - e0^2*PI_c(k^2). Then two pages later, in 13.62 the external photon polarization vector is conveniently renormalized by multiplying it by sqrt(1 - A'(A,k)), without the PI_c(k^2) term. He argues that it makes sense to remove the PI_c(k^2) term since any real photon (incoming or outgoing) will have k^2 = 0 and PI(k^2) can be expressed as a power expansion on k^2.

It is therefore implied that PI(k^2) evaluated at k^2 is 0, although the exact explanation is provided in the solutions book (problem 13.5) which of course I do not have. The thing is, PI_c(k^2) is clearly divergent at k^2 = 0 so I do not think that the divergence disappears by doing a power expansion. Maybe the answer is that we can simply make the assumption that the actual nth order PI(k^2) would have the divergence at k^2 = 0 removed, leading to a 0 value. Anyway, I would like somebody to help me with this.

## Homework Equations

See attached file.

## The Attempt at a Solution

#### Attachments

• Equations.docx
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• Equations.docx
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Hello,

Thank you for your question. It is a common misconception that renormalization is a process of simply removing divergences in a theory. In reality, renormalization is a technique used to handle these divergences in a systematic way, and it involves making certain assumptions and approximations.

In the specific case you are referring to, the PI_c(k^2) term may indeed have a divergence at k^2 = 0. However, this divergence is removed through the process of renormalization, which involves rescaling certain parameters in the theory. This rescaling effectively removes the divergence at k^2 = 0, and the resulting value of PI_c(k^2) is finite.

In the context of Klauber's Student Friendly Quantum Mechanics, this is explained in more detail in problem 13.5 of the solutions book. Unfortunately, as you mentioned, you do not have access to this book. I would recommend consulting other sources on renormalization to get a better understanding of the process and how it applies to this specific case.

I hope this helps to clarify things for you. Please let me know if you have any further questions.

## 1. What is Robert Klauber’s second order photon propagator?

Robert Klauber’s second order photon propagator, also known as the Klauber propagator, is a mathematical equation used in quantum field theory to describe the probability of a photon propagating from one point to another in space and time.

## 2. How is the Klauber propagator different from other photon propagators?

The Klauber propagator differs from other photon propagators in that it includes interactions between a photon and an external electromagnetic field, making it more accurate for certain calculations.

## 3. What is the significance of the second order in the Klauber propagator?

The second order in the Klauber propagator refers to the level of perturbation theory used in its derivation. It takes into account second order interactions between the photon and external fields.

## 4. How is the Klauber propagator used in quantum field theory?

The Klauber propagator is used in quantum field theory to calculate the probability amplitudes for processes involving photons and external electromagnetic fields.

## 5. Are there any limitations or assumptions associated with the Klauber propagator?

Like any mathematical model, the Klauber propagator has limitations and assumptions. It assumes that the external fields are weak and describes only the average behavior of a large number of photons. It also does not take into account relativistic effects.

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