Volume of solid region double integral

  • Thread starter woopydalan
  • Start date
  • #1
18
3
Homework Statement:
Set up the integral for both orders of integration and use the more convenient order to find the volume of the solid region bounded by the surface f(x, y) and the planes.
##f(x, y) = x##
Planes: ##z = 0##, ##y = \sqrt{25 − x^2}##, ##y = 0##
Relevant Equations:
##\iint\limits_R f(x,y) \, dA##
I sketched this out. With the z=0 and y=0 boundaries, we are looking at ##z \geq 0## and ##y \geq 0##

I believe ##0 \leq x \leq 5## because of the boundary of ##y=\sqrt{25-x^2}##.

This is my region

##\int_0^5 \int_0^\sqrt{25-x^2} x \, dydx ##
## =\int_0^5 xy \vert_{0}^{\sqrt{25-x^2}} \, dx##
## =\int_0^5 x\sqrt{25-x^2} \, dx##
Using U-substitution ##u = 25-x^2##, and ##du = -2x \, dx##,
## =-\frac{1}{2} \int_0^5 u^{\frac{1}{2}} \, du##
## =-\frac{1}{2} \cdot \frac{2}{3} u^{\frac{3}{2}} \vert_{0}^{5}##
##=\frac{125}{3}##

However, it seems this is not correct as when I submit this answer I get a response that it is incorrect. Am I doing something wrong with my boundaries for the integrals?
 
Last edited:

Answers and Replies

  • #2
BvU
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
14,480
3,752
Using U-substitution
So what are the bounds on ##u## ?

PS you are also sweeping a minus sign under the rug ...

PPS :smile:
:welcome: ##\qquad##!​

##\ ##
 
  • #3
18
3
Ok sorry, I didn't write that correctly in the post, but it would be

##-\frac{1}{2} \cdot \frac{2}{3} (25-x^2)^{\frac{3}{2}} \vert_{0}^{5} ##
## = 0 - (-\frac{1}{3} \cdot 25^{\frac{3}{2}}) ##
## = \frac{125}{3} ##

In these problems, the challenge is usually setting up the bounds for the integrals. I'm wondering if I chose the incorrect ones? It's easy enough to verify the integral solution with wolframalpha.
 
  • #4
BvU
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
14,480
3,752
Oops, sorry I overlooked that. In that case I don't have any other suggestions. And the numerial outcome doesn't look all that weird either. @haruspex, any idea ?

##\ ##
 
  • #5
haruspex
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
Insights Author
Gold Member
2020 Award
36,747
7,085
What makes you think x=0 is a boundary?
 
  • Like
Likes BvU and Delta2
  • #6
18
3
What makes you think x=0 is a boundary?
Well, as I explained in the OP, because ##y = \sqrt{25-x^2}##, so certainly ##x=5## is a boundary. If not ##x=0##, then ##x=-5##. If it's -5, then the volume is 0.
 
  • #7
Delta2
Homework Helper
Insights Author
Gold Member
4,535
1,835
yes I also believe x=-5 is the correct boundary, but since you want the volume you should calculate $$\iint |f(x,y)|dxdy$$
 
  • #8
18
3
yes I also believe x=-5 is the correct boundary, but since you want the volume you should calculate $$\iint |f(x,y)|dxdy$$
Interesting, that was never in the textbook as far as the absolute value.
 
  • #9
Delta2
Homework Helper
Insights Author
Gold Member
4,535
1,835
Interesting, that was never in the textbook as far as the absolute value.
Well, if you don't put the absolute value and you go ahead calculate the integral without it and with the new x-boundaries (from -5 to +5) you ll get zero as result.
 
  • #10
18
3
Well, if you don't put the absolute value and you go ahead calculate the integral without it and with the new x-boundaries (from -5 to +5) you ll get zero as result.
Understood, that's why I figured the boundary is x=0.
 
  • #11
Delta2
Homework Helper
Insights Author
Gold Member
4,535
1,835
Nope x=0 is not the correct boundary, it is x=-5 to x=+5 and the actual volume is double of what you calculated...
 
  • #12
18
3
Nope x=0 is not the correct boundary, it is x=-5 to x=+5 and the actual volume is double of what you calculated...
Ok, I got it. But I wonder if ##\lvert f(x,y) \rvert## is a general rule, or just because the nature of this function is why it was necessary to use
 
  • #13
Delta2
Homework Helper
Insights Author
Gold Member
4,535
1,835
In my opinion it is a general rule if you want to calculate the volume between some region of the xy-plane (where z=0), and z=f(x,y), otherwise if you don't put the absolute value, you ll end up subtracting volume in the region of xy-plane where f(x,y) becomes negative. If f(x,y) is positive for all x,y in the region of interest in the xy-plane , then ok there is no need of absolute value.
 
  • #14
18
3
In my opinion it is a general rule if you want to calculate the volume between some region of the xy-plane (where z=0), and z=f(x,y), otherwise if you don't put the absolute value, you ll end up subtracting volume in the region of xy-plane where f(x,y) becomes negative. If f(x,y) is positive for all x,y in the region of interest in the xy-plane , then ok there is no need of absolute value.
Thinking about it a little more now, how can x < 0? The boundary z=0, and if x=z, then you shouldn't have a negative value for x, no?
 
  • #15
BvU
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
14,480
3,752
Imagine the solid shape is made of wood. Two parts. ##|f| ## to get the volume.

##\ ##
 
  • #16
18
3
Imagine the solid shape is made of wood. Two parts. ##|f| ## to get the volume.

##\ ##
I don't follow that at all. What about the boundary z=0? So if f(x,y) = z = x, how can x<0?
 
  • #17
BvU
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
14,480
3,752
What's wrong with the volume enclosed by ##f,\ \ y=0,\ \ z=0 \ ## for ##x<0\ ##?
(as @haruspex mentioned)
It satisfies all the criteria just as well as the part with ##x>0## !

##\ ##
 
  • #18
haruspex
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
Insights Author
Gold Member
2020 Award
36,747
7,085
I don't follow that at all. What about the boundary z=0? So if f(x,y) = z = x, how can x<0?
No, f(x,y)=x does not make z=x. f(x,y) is given as a bounding surface of z, not the value of z everywhere. We can rewrite the conditions as"where z lies between the values 0 and x".
Personally I've never been happy with the presumption that areas and volumes cannot be negative, but @Delta2 is right that that is the usual convention, so the correct volume integral is ##\int|z|dxdy##, with the ranges always running from the lower bound to the higher.
 
  • #19
18
3
No, f(x,y)=x does not make z=x. f(x,y) is given as a bounding surface of z, not the value of z everywhere. We can rewrite the conditions as"where z lies between the values 0 and x".
Personally I've never been happy with the presumption that areas and volumes cannot be negative, but @Delta2 is right that that is the usual convention, so the correct volume integral is ##\int|z|dxdy##, with the ranges always running from the lower bound to the higher.
I guess I don't understand. ##f(x,y) = z## is the 3-dimensional equivalent of ##f(x) = y##. If the surface is bound by ##z=0## and ##y= \sqrt {25-x^2}##, and ##y=0##, I know that ##y \geq 0##. How can ##f(x,y) < 0##? If that's the case, I don't really even know what the bound ##z=0## means or why it matters if ##z < 0## is permissible.
 
  • #20
Delta2
Homework Helper
Insights Author
Gold Member
4,535
1,835
The bounds of z=0 and z=f(x,y), means that our volume of interest contains points (x,y,z) such that $$0\leq z\leq f(x,y)$$, OR $$f(x,y)\leq z\leq 0$$ (and the other constraints that refer to x and y). So the bound of z=0 doesn't mean necessarily that it is a lower bound but it can be an upper bound as well IF f(x,y) goes negative.
 
Last edited:
  • #21
haruspex
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
Insights Author
Gold Member
2020 Award
36,747
7,085
I guess I don't understand. ##f(x,y) = z## is the 3-dimensional equivalent of ##f(x) = y##. If the surface is bound by ##z=0## and ##y= \sqrt {25-x^2}##, and ##y=0##, I know that ##y \geq 0##. How can ##f(x,y) < 0##? If that's the case, I don't really even know what the bound ##z=0## means or why it matters if ##z < 0## is permissible.
It might help if you can visualise it.
##y= \sqrt {25-x^2}## Is a horizontal semicircle radius 5, centred at the origin. In 3D, that as a boundary, combined with the y=0 boundary, defines an infinite vertical half cylinder.
z=0 is the horizontal plane through the origin, while z=x is a plane at 45 degrees containing the y axis.
These three boundaries enclose two separate wedges meeting at the y axis.
In one wedge, the z=0 plane is the upper bound, while in the other wedge it is the lower bound.
 
  • #22
18
3
So basically z can be anything EXCEPT 0. Kind of a dumb boundary IMO
 
  • #23
haruspex
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
Insights Author
Gold Member
2020 Award
36,747
7,085
So basically z can be anything EXCEPT 0. Kind of a dumb boundary IMO
It's no different in that respect to the way the other boundaries are prescribed. You are given that ##y=\sqrt{25-x^2}## is a boundary, not that ##y<\sqrt{25-x^2}##. Which side of that lies the enclosed region has to be deduced from the other boundaries. The only complication in the z=0 boundary is that the enclosed region lies a part on each side.
 
  • #24
285
130
It might help if you can visualise it.
1626485522484.png

1626485578924.png

Alternatively, you can use integration under polar coordinates:
$$\int_0^{\pi}\int_0^5 | r\cos \theta \, r | drd\theta$$
 

Attachments

  • 1626484132267.png
    1626484132267.png
    75.7 KB · Views: 23
  • 1626484193828.png
    1626484193828.png
    71.9 KB · Views: 26
  • 1626484258694.png
    1626484258694.png
    41.1 KB · Views: 28
Last edited:
  • #25
haruspex
Science Advisor
Homework Helper
Insights Author
Gold Member
2020 Award
36,747
7,085
View attachment 286087
View attachment 286088
View attachment 286089
Alternatively, you can use integration under polar coordinates:
$$\int_0^{\pi/2}\int_0^5 r\sin \theta \, rdrd\theta$$
Nice diagrams, thanks, except that as noted earlier in the thread the enclosed volume includes an identical region with z<0 and x<0.
For the region shown in your diagrams, the volume was found in post #1.
 

Related Threads on Volume of solid region double integral

  • Last Post
Replies
2
Views
2K
  • Last Post
Replies
4
Views
1K
  • Last Post
Replies
1
Views
806
Replies
3
Views
1K
Replies
3
Views
3K
  • Last Post
Replies
2
Views
3K
Replies
2
Views
1K
  • Last Post
Replies
4
Views
2K
Replies
3
Views
899
Top