What is Dirac delta function?

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Summary:
See the title please.
I came across it in the derivation of Gauss' law of electric flux from Coulomb's law. I did some research on it, but the wikipedia page about it was slightly confusing. All I know about it is that it models an instantaneous surge by a distribution. However I am still perplexed by this concept. Can someone please explain it to me like I am a 5-year-old with some calculus or direct me to some useful resources other than wiki?
 
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anuttarasammyak
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There are multiple approaches to delta function. Here I would start from
Heaviside Step Funiiton
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heaviside_step_function
We can not differentiate Heaviside Step Function at 0 in usual healthy sense. But Dirac boldly invented a strange delta "function" as the result of its derivative including x=0.
[tex]H'(x)=\delta(x)[/tex]

Say we give 1 Ns impulse to a 1kg body to make it move with 1m/s.
There are many ways to do it, e.g.
Applying Force 1 N during 1 second,
Force 10N during 1/10 second,
Force 100N during 1/100second,
-----
Force 1/x N during x second,
------

We can make time duration x as small as we like with increasing Force 1/x .

There is no limit of x to zero in this sequence because 1/x diverges to infinity. But Dirac say there exists force limit ##\delta(x)##, that is to say, in a instant of time, the infinite force is applied to generate 1 Ns momentum on the body. Delta function is a momentum maker in a instant of time.
[tex]\int_{-\infty}^x \delta(\xi) d\xi = H(x)[/tex]
Heaviside step function shows thus made momentum by Delta function at x=0.
 
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PeroK
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Summary:: See the title please.

Can someone please explain it to me like I am a 5-year-old ...
The Dirac delta function is rarely taught at infant school. Especially these days.
 
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The Dirac delta function is rarely taught at infant school. Especially these days.
What's the world coming to these days ?! :wink: A B C Dd !
 
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wrobel
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##\delta##-function is a linear continuous functional on the space of ##C^\infty(\mathbb{R})##-functions with compact support. By definition ##\delta(\varphi)=\varphi(0)##.
The formulas like ##H'=\delta## are understood in the generalized sense
$$-\int_{\mathbb{R}}H(x)\varphi'(x)dx=\varphi(0)$$
For details see any textbook on functional analysis. For example https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783540586548
 
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