What is Calorimetry: Definition and 122 Discussions
Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints. Calorimetry is performed with a calorimeter. The word calorimetry is derived from the Latin word calor, meaning heat and the Greek word μέτρον (metron), meaning measure. Scottish physician and scientist Joseph Black, who was the first to recognize the distinction between heat and temperature, is said to be the founder of the science of calorimetry.Indirect calorimetry calculates heat that living organisms produce by measuring either their production of carbon dioxide and nitrogen waste (frequently ammonia in aquatic organisms, or urea in terrestrial ones), or from their consumption of oxygen.
Lavoisier noted in 1780 that heat production can be predicted from oxygen consumption this way, using multiple regression. The dynamic energy budget theory explains why this procedure is correct. Heat generated by living organisms may also be measured by direct calorimetry, in which the entire organism is placed inside the calorimeter for the measurement.
A widely used modern instrument is the differential scanning calorimeter, a device which allows thermal data to be obtained on small amounts of material. It involves heating the sample at a controlled rate and recording the heat flow either into or from the specimen.
The figure usually has a caption that goes like this: "Fractional energy loss per radiation length as a function of electron or positron energy in lead," but I do not fathom is at (1/E)dE/dx =1, it seems like the particle is losing all of its energy at ~7MeV by ionisation. Therefore, I would not...
When solving "coffee cup calorimeter" problems, you're supposed to include the solute mass with the mass of your solution.
However, you're also supposed to assume that dilute solutions have the same density and heat capacity as water.
So if I add 5g of NaOH to 500g of water, the solution...
I just know that one assumption is that the specific heat capacity of water (as the surrounding) stays the same (or the change in its heat capacity is negligible). Please Help me with the rest.
So all of the ice melts and I am guessing it then warms some so
Q=mL+mc(change in T)
for the water that cools down
Q=mc(change in T)
Q_cold = Q_hot so mc(Tf  Ti) = mL+mc(Tf  Ti)
My issue is that I have 2 unknowns. I don't know the specific heat capacity of water and I don't know the...
Equal masses of ice at –10ºC and water at 80ºC are placed in an insulated container and allowed to reach thermal equilibrium. Calculate the equilibrium temperature
Data:
Water(ice): 37,65 J/mol.K Agua (l): 75,29 J/mol.K
## Lf = 6011 J/mol ##
I solved it this way:
## Q_{l} = Q_{ice} ##
##...
Problem Statement: so we did an experiment. basically the teacher gave us each a cube of unknown metal
and we had to figure out what it was using the specific heat.
we put the metal in boiling water until it was 212C
and then we put it in room temp water
and we measured how much it heated the...
My question :
My understanding is that ##\Delta T = T_f  T_i##
In the case of the calorimeter and water this is consistent with the solution. Yet for the sphere ##\Delta T = T_i  T_f##?
Homework Statement
Wet clothing at 0°C is hung out to dry when the air temperature is 0°C and there is a dry wind blowing. After some time, it is found that some of the water has evaporated and the remainder has frozen. Estimate the fraction of the water originally present in the clothing which...
Homework Statement
My youngest son likes a hot shower, and wants to stay in the shower as long as possible. We do not have an ondemand water heater. He is a small boy, so he doesn't need that much water. The incoming water supply is at 45 deg F and our water heater is rated at 45,000 BTU/hour...
Hello,
I ran a test on an industrial composite of 30% glassfilled nylon 6, and my melting temperature peak is too low. The range was from 30 C to 275 C. Why could this be happening? Should I suspect the sample pan?
Thanks.
So let's say I do the reaction Mg + HCl > MgCl2 + H2 in an open calorimeter. I measure a certain temperature change in the calorimeter, let's say an increase of 12 degrees C. Keeping all other variables the same, if I perform this experiment in a closed calorimeter, what will happen to the...
Homework Statement
The combustion of 0.1577 g benzoic acid increases the temperature of a bomb calorimeter by 2.51°C. a) Calculate the heat capacity of this calorimeter. (The energy released by combustion of benzoic acid is 26.42 kJ/g.)
A 0.2123g sample of vanillin is then burned in the same...
Assuming all gases in the combustion reaction of benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) behave ideally, what is the "exact" change in internal energy?
The context in which this question is being asked is after a calorimetry experiment. For all the intents and purposes of calorimetry, the change in internal...
Homework Statement
A quantity of 4.00 3 10 2 mL of 0.600 M HNO 3 is mixed with 4.00 3 10 2 mL of 0.300 M Ba(OH) 2 in a constantpressure calorimeter of negligible heat capacity. The initial temperature of both solutions is the same at 18.46°C. What is the final temperature of the solution? (Use...
Homework Statement
Given a copper calorimeter that has a mass of 446 grams containing 95 grams of ice at 0.0°C. If 35 grams of steam at 100.0°C and 1.00 atm pressure is added to the can, what is the final temperature of the can and its contents? At the final temperature, how many kilograms are...
Homework Statement
Mothballs are composed primarily of the hydrocarbon naphthalene (C10H8). When 1.070 g of naphthalene burns in a bomb calorimeter, the temperature rises from 24.464 ∘C to 32.473 ∘C.
determine delta H and delta U given the heat capacity of the calorimeter is 5.112 kJ/mol...
When dealing with heat transfer, there are cases where Q can be expressed by C*ΔT, for some proportionality constant C. However, in isothermal processes for example, this formula would lead to a mistake, for any value of C (because it would imply Q=0, which is not true generally speaking). What...
Homework Statement
In an adiabatic container are placed , in rapid succession , a mass of ice , ##m_I= 2 kg## , at temperature ##T_I = 10 ◦C## and a mass of water , ##m_W = 1 kg## , at the temperature ##T_W = + 20 ◦C## . Determine :
a) the total mass of water present in the container at...
Homework Statement
5 g of water at 30°C and 5 g of ice at 20°C are mixed together in a calorimeter Find the final temperature of the mixture. Water equivalent of the calorimeter is negligible,specific heat of ice=0.5 cal/g°C and latent heat of ice =80 cal/g.
Homework Equations...
Homework Statement
In a copper calorimeter of mass m=100g, there is water of mass m1=200g with a temperature of t1=4°C. A copper body of mass m2=300g and temperature t2=  20°C is inserted into the calorimeter.
a) What will be the final temperature inside the calorimeter?
b) Show that one...
1 kg of ice at 20°C is mixed with 1kg steam at 200°C. Then find equilibrium temperature and mixture content.
Please DON'T use Joules as unit while answering the question.
Converting 1 kg steam at 200°C to 1 kg water at 0°C requires : (1* 0.5*100) + ( 1*540) + (1* 1 * 100 ) k cal heat = 690...
Homework Statement
When 1.50g of Ba(s) is added to 100.0g of water in a container open to the atmosphere, the reaction shown below occurs and the temperature of the resulting solution rises from 22.00 celsius to 33.10 celsius. If the specific heat of the solution is 4.18J/g*celsius, calculate...
When doing constant volume calorimetry, the enthalpy can be calculated as follows:
ΔH = ΔU + Δ(PV)
ΔH = w + q + Δ(PV)
ΔH = PΔV + q + Δ(PV)
and at constant volume:
ΔH = q + VΔP
which I've then see people rewrite using the ideal gas law as follows:
ΔH = q + (Δn)RT
where Δn is the change in...
For part number 5, it says to make sure that each ΔT is positive. Why is this? Couldn't it be a negative? Or does it have to be positive since if it wasn't you would be getting heat going in the wrong direction? Like the one substance would be gaining instead of losing the heat? Which would...
please help :( I know the formula, but i don't understand the question1. Homework Statement
a 200g calorimeter, with heat capacity = 0.10 cal/g C, contains 300g of water. a 500 g aluminum shot, at 99 Celsius, was poured in the calorimeter. What would be the initial temperature of water in order...
Let's say I have a cold bottle of water in a warm room (temperature is constant). Is it possible to calculate how long it will take for the water to reach a certain temperature? Do you guys know any formula for this? To be more general:
What is the effect (W, J/s) that air in a certain...
1. The problTfem statement, all variables and given/known data
Determine the result when 100g of steam at 100C is passed into a mixture of 200g of Water and 20g of ice at exactly 0C in a calorimeter which behaves thermally as if it were equvalent to 30g of water.
Homework Equations
FInding the...
Homework Statement
2.0kg of a metal (for which c = 620 J kg K ) is immersed in 1.5kg of water, initially at 20◦ . What is the final temperature if 8.0 × 104J are added as heat?
Homework Equations
Q=mcΔT
The Attempt at a Solution
So I was able to get the correct answer what I did was:
Qadded...
Homework Statement
A quantity of water in a beaker of negligible thermal capacity is cooled to a few degrees below freezing point. The beaker is then placed in a warm room, and the times recorded at which it is at various temperatures as it gradually warms. The observations were...
Quick question regarding ECals. I am giving a presentation on them soon and I understand just about everything I am supposed to, but I keep encountering one symbol and I simply don't understand what it is supposed to mean.
##\frac{d\sigma}{dx}=\frac{A}{X_0N_A}\bigg[1\frac{4}{3}x(1x)\bigg] ##...
Homework Statement
The Pacific Crest Trail stretches from Mexico to Canada through the mountains of California, Oregon and Washington. Hikers on this trail must carefully estimate the amount of fuel they will need. They will typically carry a small camp stove which produces 700 J/s of heat...
Homework Statement
An aluminum cup (of negligible mass) is filled with 0.5 kg of water with a temperature of 15◦C and 1.3 kg of ice (at 8 celsius) is added.
A)What is the final phase or phases of the mixture?
B)What is the final temperature of the mixture?
C)How much heat is required to raise...
1) PROBLEM:
Task is to find the thermal conductivity of steel experimentally.
I have conducted relevant experiments and I am trying to solve for the thermal conductivity (k) itself. My final however is ten times too large in size, and I am having trouble identifying where the error is coming...
Homework Statement
A 0.080kg copper container (specific heat: 387Jkg1K1) contains 0.30kg of water and 0.040kg of ice at 0°C. Steam at 100°C is passed into the water and its temperature stabilizes at 20.0°C. Find the mass of the water left in the container assuming the system is insulated...
Homework Statement
I am conducting an experiment to determine the specific heat of a certain metal using a typical calorimetry experiment (using a polystyrene cup). I have been asked to list sources of error and
quantify them in relation to the total error in the experiment  I have thought...
Homework Statement
What is the mass of a piece of nickel metal if it is heated to 100.0°C and placed into 250.0 grams of water at 21.52°C in a calorimeter with a heat capacity of 95.3J/K and the temperature stabilizes at 25.82°C?
Homework Equations
qnickel=+qwater
The Attempt at a...
Homework Statement
We insert into a copper container (weighing 1.5 Kg) 3 Kg of water vapour at 100 ºC. Inside the container there are 10 Kg of ice at 10ºC. Find the ΔT when the system reaches the equilibrium.
Known data: the specific heats of water, copper and ice and the latent heat of...
If I am doing calorimetry, I know that if I put something like CuSO4 in water it will dissociate and the water will change temperature...
But if I put something insoluble such as BaSO4 in water, will the temperature still change and will I be able to find it's heat of formation.
It's...
I had a bottle half full of ice and filled it with water and placed it in my fridge. I noticed that the ice was taking a significant time to melt. In fact after half a day it looked like it hadn’t melted at all.
That got me to thinking. Say I did this with a rigid container and filled up the...
Homework Statement
This was the procedure for the lab:
Find the mass of the Styrofoam cup. Half fill it with warm water at a temperature of about 50 degrees C. Determine the mass of the water and the cup. Dry off some small pieces of ice with the paper towel. Record the temperature of...
I am studying for the IPhO and I am using University Physics by HD Young. I think that the book's problems in Calorimetry and Thermodynamics are not very good and also there are not detailed solutions to the problems. Can anybody propose to me any good textbook with more problems and detailed...
Homework Statement
Calculate the final temperature (once the ice has melted) of a mixture made up initially of 75.0 mL liquid water at 29 degrees celsius and 7.0 g ice at 0.0 degrees celsius.
Homework Equations
c: heat capacity of water
miceΔHf + micec(Tf0°C) = mwaterc(Tf  29°C)...
Homework Statement
So I did an experiment today.
The procedure is very simple.
First I got a styrofoam cup with a lid, filled it with 50.00ml (V1) of water, assum density ρ = 1.0 g/ml
Then measured the temperature of the water. T1
After that, I added 23 small pieces of ice, close the lid...
Homework Statement The partial burning of coal in the presence of O2 and H2O produces a mixture of CO(g) and H2(g) called synthesis gas. This gas can be used to synthesize organic compounds, or it can be burned as a fuel. A typical synthesis gas consists of 55.0% CO(g), 33.0% H2(g) and 12.0%...
Homework Statement
A 500.0g chunk of unknown metal, which has been in boiling water for several minutes, is quickly dropped into an insulating Styrofoam beaker containing 1.00 kg of water at room temperature (20.0 C). After waiting and stirring for 5.00 minutes, you observe that the water's...
1. An acidbase neutralization reaction is exothermic. For the measurement of the enthalpy of neutralization, for the reaction, heat is inevitably lost to the calorimeter (beaker or styrofoam cup). How will this unaccounted for heat loss affect the reported value for the enthalpy of...
Homework Statement
A thirsty nurse cools a 2.40 L bottle of a soft drink (mostly water) by pouring it into a large aluminum mug of mass 0.250 kg and adding 0.123 kg of ice initially at 15.5 degree celsius . If the soft drink and mug are initially at 20.2 degree celsius, what is the final...
Homework Statement
when a metal cylinder of mass 0.02kg and specific heat capacity 500J/kg/K is heated by an electric heater working at a constant power, the initial rate of rise of temperature is 3K/min. After a time the heater is switched off and the initial rate of fall of temperature is...
Homework Statement
To find cx, the specific heat of material X, I place 75g of X in a 30g copper
calorimeter that contains 65g of water, all initially at 20°C. When I add 100g of
water at 80°C, the final temperature is 49°C. What is cx?
Data: cCU = 386 J kg
1
K

Homework...
Homework Statement
Suppose a cup of boiling water (m=250g) instantaneously cools to room temperature (25°C) with the liberated thermal energy going into translational KE. How fast will the cup fly off the table? Assume the water molecules have 18 degrees of freedom.
Homework Equations...