# What is Calorimetry: Definition and 122 Discussions

Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints. Calorimetry is performed with a calorimeter. The word calorimetry is derived from the Latin word calor, meaning heat and the Greek word μέτρον (metron), meaning measure. Scottish physician and scientist Joseph Black, who was the first to recognize the distinction between heat and temperature, is said to be the founder of the science of calorimetry.Indirect calorimetry calculates heat that living organisms produce by measuring either their production of carbon dioxide and nitrogen waste (frequently ammonia in aquatic organisms, or urea in terrestrial ones), or from their consumption of oxygen.
Lavoisier noted in 1780 that heat production can be predicted from oxygen consumption this way, using multiple regression. The dynamic energy budget theory explains why this procedure is correct. Heat generated by living organisms may also be measured by direct calorimetry, in which the entire organism is placed inside the calorimeter for the measurement.
A widely used modern instrument is the differential scanning calorimeter, a device which allows thermal data to be obtained on small amounts of material. It involves heating the sample at a controlled rate and recording the heat flow either into or from the specimen.

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1. ### A The fractional energy loss of charged particle per radiation length

The figure usually has a caption that goes like this: "Fractional energy loss per radiation length as a function of electron or positron energy in lead," but I do not fathom is at (1/E)dE/dx =1, it seems like the particle is losing all of its energy at ~7MeV by ionisation. Therefore, I would not...
2. ### Calorimetric Theory Discrepancy

When solving "coffee cup calorimeter" problems, you're supposed to include the solute mass with the mass of your solution. However, you're also supposed to assume that dilute solutions have the same density and heat capacity as water. So if I add 5g of NaOH to 500g of water, the solution...
3. ### Chemistry Assumptions made when doing calorimetry / errors that occur

I just know that one assumption is that the specific heat capacity of water (as the surrounding) stays the same (or the change in its heat capacity is negligible). Please Help me with the rest.
4. ### Calorimetry - finding the final temperature of a system of ice and water

So all of the ice melts and I am guessing it then warms some so Q=mL+mc(change in T) for the water that cools down Q=mc(change in T) Q_cold = -Q_hot so -mc(Tf - Ti) = mL+mc(Tf - Ti) My issue is that I have 2 unknowns. I don't know the specific heat capacity of water and I don't know the...
5. ### Chemistry Equilibrium temperature of a water and ice system

Equal masses of ice at –10ºC and water at 80ºC are placed in an insulated container and allowed to reach thermal equilibrium. Calculate the equilibrium temperature Data: Water(ice): 37,65 J/mol.K Agua (l): 75,29 J/mol.K ## Lf = 6011 J/mol ## I solved it this way: ## -Q_{l} = Q_{ice} ## ##...
6. ### Calorimetry Lab Analysis (predict specific heat of unknown metal)

Problem Statement: so we did an experiment. basically the teacher gave us each a cube of unknown metal and we had to figure out what it was using the specific heat. we put the metal in boiling water until it was 212C and then we put it in room temp water and we measured how much it heated the...
7. ### Meaning of ##\Delta T## in the context of calorimetry

My question : My understanding is that ##\Delta T = T_f - T_i## In the case of the calorimeter and water this is consistent with the solution. Yet for the sphere ##\Delta T = T_i - T_f##?
8. ### A wet cloth has been hung out to dry....

Homework Statement Wet clothing at 0°C is hung out to dry when the air temperature is 0°C and there is a dry wind blowing. After some time, it is found that some of the water has evaporated and the remainder has frozen. Estimate the fraction of the water originally present in the clothing which...
9. ### Calorimetry hot shower Problem

Homework Statement My youngest son likes a hot shower, and wants to stay in the shower as long as possible. We do not have an on-demand water heater. He is a small boy, so he doesn't need that much water. The incoming water supply is at 45 deg F and our water heater is rated at 45,000 BTU/hour...
10. ### Differential scanning calorimetry of nylon 6

Hello, I ran a test on an industrial composite of 30% glass-filled nylon 6, and my melting temperature peak is too low. The range was from -30 C to 275 C. Why could this be happening? Should I suspect the sample pan? Thanks.
11. ### Closed container vs Open container for calorimetry

So let's say I do the reaction Mg + HCl --> MgCl2 + H2 in an open calorimeter. I measure a certain temperature change in the calorimeter, let's say an increase of 12 degrees C. Keeping all other variables the same, if I perform this experiment in a closed calorimeter, what will happen to the...
12. S

### Urgent -- Bomb Calorimetry Combustion Reaction

Homework Statement The combustion of 0.1577 g benzoic acid increases the temperature of a bomb calorimeter by 2.51°C. a) Calculate the heat capacity of this calorimeter. (The energy released by combustion of benzoic acid is 26.42 kJ/g.) A 0.2123-g sample of vanillin is then burned in the same...
13. J

### Internal energy of an ideal gas as a function of pressure?

Assuming all gases in the combustion reaction of benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) behave ideally, what is the "exact" change in internal energy? The context in which this question is being asked is after a calorimetry experiment. For all the intents and purposes of calorimetry, the change in internal...
14. ### Constant-Pressure Calorimetry question

Homework Statement A quantity of 4.00 3 10 2 mL of 0.600 M HNO 3 is mixed with 4.00 3 10 2 mL of 0.300 M Ba(OH) 2 in a constant-pressure calorimeter of negligible heat capacity. The initial temperature of both solutions is the same at 18.46°C. What is the final temperature of the solution? (Use...
15. ### Calorimetry: Finding mass of ice, water, steam left

Homework Statement Given a copper calorimeter that has a mass of 446 grams containing 95 grams of ice at 0.0°C. If 35 grams of steam at 100.0°C and 1.00 atm pressure is added to the can, what is the final temperature of the can and its contents? At the final temperature, how many kilograms are...
16. ### Help with Calorimetry: Calculate ΔH, ΔU

Homework Statement Mothballs are composed primarily of the hydrocarbon naphthalene (C10H8). When 1.070 g of naphthalene burns in a bomb calorimeter, the temperature rises from 24.464 ∘C to 32.473 ∘C. determine delta H and delta U given the heat capacity of the calorimeter is 5.112 kJ/mol...
17. ### I Conditions for writing Q=CΔT

When dealing with heat transfer, there are cases where Q can be expressed by C*ΔT, for some proportionality constant C. However, in isothermal processes for example, this formula would lead to a mistake, for any value of C (because it would imply Q=0, which is not true generally speaking). What...
18. ### Reversible heat exchange between water and ice

Homework Statement In an adiabatic container are placed , in rapid succession , a mass of ice , ##m_I= 2 kg## , at temperature ##T_I = -10 ◦C## and a mass of water , ##m_W = 1 kg## , at the temperature ##T_W = + 20 ◦C## . Determine : a) the total mass of water present in the container at...
19. ### Temperature after mixing ice and water

Homework Statement 5 g of water at 30°C and 5 g of ice at -20°C are mixed together in a calorimeter Find the final temperature of the mixture. Water equivalent of the calorimeter is negligible,specific heat of ice=0.5 cal/g°C and latent heat of ice =80 cal/g. Homework Equations...
20. ### Problem regarding calorimetry

Homework Statement In a copper calorimeter of mass m=100g, there is water of mass m1=200g with a temperature of t1=4°C. A copper body of mass m2=300g and temperature t2= - 20°C is inserted into the calorimeter. a) What will be the final temperature inside the calorimeter? b) Show that one...
21. ### 1 kg of ice at -20°C is mixed with 1kg steam at 200°C......

1 kg of ice at -20°C is mixed with 1kg steam at 200°C. Then find equilibrium temperature and mixture content. Please DON'T use Joules as unit while answering the question. Converting 1 kg steam at 200°C to 1 kg water at 0°C requires : (1* 0.5*100) + ( 1*540) + (1* 1 * 100 ) k cal heat = 690...
22. ### Calorimetry Problem: Calculate Change in Enthalpy

Homework Statement When 1.50g of Ba(s) is added to 100.0g of water in a container open to the atmosphere, the reaction shown below occurs and the temperature of the resulting solution rises from 22.00 celsius to 33.10 celsius. If the specific heat of the solution is 4.18J/g*celsius, calculate...
23. ### Constant Volume Calorimetry - Why does (ΔnRT)=(Δn)RT

When doing constant volume calorimetry, the enthalpy can be calculated as follows: ΔH = ΔU + Δ(PV) ΔH = w + q + Δ(PV) ΔH = PΔV + q + Δ(PV) and at constant volume: ΔH = q + VΔP which I've then see people rewrite using the ideal gas law as follows: ΔH = q + (Δn)RT where Δn is the change in...
24. ### Delta T in Calorimetry always positive?

For part number 5, it says to make sure that each ΔT is positive. Why is this? Couldn't it be a negative? Or does it have to be positive since if it wasn't you would be getting heat going in the wrong direction? Like the one substance would be gaining instead of losing the heat? Which would...
25. ### Solving Calorimetry Problems

please help :( I know the formula, but i don't understand the question1. Homework Statement a 200g calorimeter, with heat capacity = 0.10 cal/g C, contains 300g of water. a 500 g aluminum shot, at 99 Celsius, was poured in the calorimeter. What would be the initial temperature of water in order...
26. ### Effect (W) from Temperature

Let's say I have a cold bottle of water in a warm room (temperature is constant). Is it possible to calculate how long it will take for the water to reach a certain temperature? Do you guys know any formula for this? To be more general: What is the effect (W, J/s) that air in a certain...
27. ### Determining the result or state of system in a calorimeter

1. The problTfem statement, all variables and given/known data Determine the result when 100g of steam at 100C is passed into a mixture of 200g of Water and 20g of ice at exactly 0C in a calorimeter which behaves thermally as if it were equvalent to 30g of water. Homework Equations FInding the...
28. ### Heat and temperature question with calorimetry

Homework Statement 2.0kg of a metal (for which c = 620 J kg K ) is immersed in 1.5kg of water, initially at 20◦ . What is the final temperature if 8.0 × 104J are added as heat? Homework Equations Q=mcΔT The Attempt at a Solution So I was able to get the correct answer what I did was: Qadded...
29. ### Heat capacity of water -- experimental determination

Homework Statement A quantity of water in a beaker of negligible thermal capacity is cooled to a few degrees below freezing point. The beaker is then placed in a warm room, and the times recorded at which it is at various temperatures as it gradually warms. The observations were...
30. ### Electromagnetic Calorimetry

Quick question regarding E-Cals. I am giving a presentation on them soon and I understand just about everything I am supposed to, but I keep encountering one symbol and I simply don't understand what it is supposed to mean. ##\frac{d\sigma}{dx}=\frac{A}{X_0N_A}\bigg[1-\frac{4}{3}x(1-x)\bigg] ##...
31. ### How much heat is needed to boil water on a camp stove?

Homework Statement The Pacific Crest Trail stretches from Mexico to Canada through the mountains of California, Oregon and Washington. Hikers on this trail must carefully estimate the amount of fuel they will need. They will typically carry a small camp stove which produces 700 J/s of heat...
32. ### Calorimetry with phase change

Homework Statement An aluminum cup (of negligible mass) is filled with 0.5 kg of water with a temperature of 15◦C and 1.3 kg of ice (at -8 celsius) is added. A)What is the final phase or phases of the mixture? B)What is the final temperature of the mixture? C)How much heat is required to raise...
33. ### Thermal Conductivity of Steel experiment

1) PROBLEM: Task is to find the thermal conductivity of steel experimentally. I have conducted relevant experiments and I am trying to solve for the thermal conductivity (k) itself. My final however is ten times too large in size, and I am having trouble identifying where the error is coming...
34. ### Calorimetry specific heat

Homework Statement A 0.080kg copper container (specific heat: 387Jkg-1K-1) contains 0.30kg of water and 0.040kg of ice at 0°C. Steam at 100°C is passed into the water and its temperature stabilizes at 20.0°C. Find the mass of the water left in the container assuming the system is insulated...
35. ### Calorimetry quantifying sources of error

Homework Statement I am conducting an experiment to determine the specific heat of a certain metal using a typical calorimetry experiment (using a polystyrene cup). I have been asked to list sources of error and quantify them in relation to the total error in the experiment - I have thought...
36. ### Calculating Mass in a Calorimetry Problem

Homework Statement What is the mass of a piece of nickel metal if it is heated to 100.0°C and placed into 250.0 grams of water at 21.52°C in a calorimeter with a heat capacity of 95.3J/K and the temperature stabilizes at 25.82°C? Homework Equations -qnickel=+qwater The Attempt at a...
37. ### Calorimetry: mix of ice, water vapor inside a copper container

Homework Statement We insert into a copper container (weighing 1.5 Kg) 3 Kg of water vapour at 100 ºC. Inside the container there are 10 Kg of ice at -10ºC. Find the ΔT when the system reaches the equilibrium. Known data: the specific heats of water, copper and ice and the latent heat of...
38. M

### Calorimetry CuSO4 question

If I am doing calorimetry, I know that if I put something like CuSO4 in water it will dissociate and the water will change temperature... But if I put something insoluble such as BaSO4 in water, will the temperature still change and will I be able to find it's heat of formation. It's...
39. ### Calorimetry of a non-isolated system

I had a bottle half full of ice and filled it with water and placed it in my fridge. I noticed that the ice was taking a significant time to melt. In fact after half a day it looked like it hadn’t melted at all. That got me to thinking. Say I did this with a rigid container and filled up the...
40. ### Calorimetry and Enthelpy Ice Lab

Homework Statement This was the procedure for the lab: Find the mass of the Styrofoam cup. Half fill it with warm water at a temperature of about 50 degrees C. Determine the mass of the water and the cup. Dry off some small pieces of ice with the paper towel. Record the temperature of...
41. ### Calorimetry & Thermodynamics textbook

I am studying for the IPhO and I am using University Physics by HD Young. I think that the book's problems in Calorimetry and Thermodynamics are not very good and also there are not detailed solutions to the problems. Can anybody propose to me any good textbook with more problems and detailed...
42. ### Simple calorimetry problem, melting of water

Homework Statement Calculate the final temperature (once the ice has melted) of a mixture made up initially of 75.0 mL liquid water at 29 degrees celsius and 7.0 g ice at 0.0 degrees celsius. Homework Equations c: heat capacity of water miceΔHf + micec(Tf-0°C) = -mwaterc(Tf - 29°C)...
43. ### Simple calorimetry lab, thermodynamics

Homework Statement So I did an experiment today. The procedure is very simple. First I got a styrofoam cup with a lid, filled it with 50.00ml (V1) of water, assum density ρ = 1.0 g/ml Then measured the temperature of the water. T1 After that, I added 2-3 small pieces of ice, close the lid...
44. ### Calorimetry synthesis gas

Homework Statement The partial burning of coal in the presence of O2 and H2O produces a mixture of CO(g) and H2(g) called synthesis gas. This gas can be used to synthesize organic compounds, or it can be burned as a fuel. A typical synthesis gas consists of 55.0% CO(g), 33.0% H2(g) and 12.0%...
45. ### Calorimetry Problem, calculating the specific heat of a unknown substance

Homework Statement A 500.0-g chunk of unknown metal, which has been in boiling water for several minutes, is quickly dropped into an insulating Styrofoam beaker containing 1.00 kg of water at room temperature (20.0 C). After waiting and stirring for 5.00 minutes, you observe that the water's...
46. ### Calorimetry question (unaccounted heat loss)

1. An acid-base neutralization reaction is exothermic. For the measurement of the enthalpy of neutralization, for the reaction, heat is inevitably lost to the calorimeter (beaker or styrofoam cup). How will this unaccounted for heat loss affect the reported value for the enthalpy of...
47. ### Calorimetry A thirsty nurse cools a 2.40 L

Homework Statement A thirsty nurse cools a 2.40 L bottle of a soft drink (mostly water) by pouring it into a large aluminum mug of mass 0.250 kg and adding 0.123 kg of ice initially at -15.5 degree celsius . If the soft drink and mug are initially at 20.2 degree celsius, what is the final...
48. ### Calorimetry Homework: Rate of Heat Gain Before Switch Off

Homework Statement when a metal cylinder of mass 0.02kg and specific heat capacity 500J/kg/K is heated by an electric heater working at a constant power, the initial rate of rise of temperature is 3K/min. After a time the heater is switched off and the initial rate of fall of temperature is...
49. ### Solving for cx: Specific Heat of Material X | Calorimetry Question

Homework Statement To find cx, the specific heat of material X, I place 75g of X in a 30g copper calorimeter that contains 65g of water, all initially at 20°C. When I add 100g of water at 80°C, the final temperature is 49°C. What is cx? Data: cCU = 386 J kg -1 K - Homework...
50. ### Calorimetry: Thermal energy going into translational KE

Homework Statement Suppose a cup of boiling water (m=250g) instantaneously cools to room temperature (25°C) with the liberated thermal energy going into translational KE. How fast will the cup fly off the table? Assume the water molecules have 18 degrees of freedom. Homework Equations...