copper Definition and Topics - 21 Discussions

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement.
Copper is one of the few metals that can occur in nature in a directly usable metallic form (native metals). This led to very early human use in several regions, from c. 8000 BC. Thousands of years later, it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC; the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC; and the first metal to be purposely alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC.In the Roman era, copper was mined principally on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium (metal of Cyprus), later corrupted to сuprum (Latin). Coper (Old English) and copper were derived from this, the later spelling first used around 1530.Commonly encountered compounds are copper(II) salts, which often impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite, malachite, and turquoise, and have been used widely and historically as pigments.
Copper used in buildings, usually for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris (or patina). Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents, fungicides, and wood preservatives.
Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found mainly in the liver, muscle, and bone. The adult body contains between 1.4 and 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight.

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  1. hojess02

    Problems in Copper and Zinc Electroplating

  2. J

    Electrodeposition of copper -- Why are the anodic and cathodic Tafel curves different?

    The shapes of the anodic and cathodic Tafel curves are different. What does it mean? Does it mean that the electrodeposition of the copper onto a surface of an electrode is uneven? If yes, I am also thinking that this has something to do with the macrothrowing power? Since it was done in an...
  3. S

    I Is a Copper Conductor Directional?

    Hi, A question has arisen an a hifi forum (sorry) that cables can be directional. I dispute this, as the proposed mechanism is diodes in the crystal structure etc. or the drawing process to crate the strands. Assume that it is 99.9% pure copper (CW004A (was C101)) and forms part of a cable with...
  4. A

    Help with an Experiment Concerning a Copper Sulfate

    Hi, I'm in 12th grade and for my senior project I am doing an observation on the effects copper would have on plant growth. I have used copper sulfate to create increasing concentrations of copper in which I used to water my test plants. After further research of lately, I found that copper...
  5. A

    Help with Copper and Zinc's Effects on a Plant Experiment

    Hi, I'm in 12th grade and for my senior project I wanted to do an experiment on the effects that copper and zinc have on mung beans. I have copper sulfate pentahyde and zinc sulfate monohydrate, which I had purchased because I have seen information on other similar experiments where these were...
  6. B

    Unknown Electrolysis(?) reaction occurring

    I have obtained an experimental setup of a Marx bank which has electrolytic liquid resistors. In the tubing of the resistors are various strength solutions of copper sulfate. I was told that the electrodes are copper but there appears to be some sort of plating or other reaction occurring...
  7. M

    What is voltage when running current through copper plats?

    Hey everyone, I'm hoping that you guys will be able to help me with some calculations. I was on YouTube and came across this: I then began to wonder if I could make a solenoid using bitter disk as in the video, granted no where near as powerful. I would say 1 tesla using an iron core. After...
  8. G

    B Cu's 29th ionization energy

    So I was playing with periodic table and discovered Cu's 29th ionization energy(cu with no electron) is 1116105 KJ/mole . Then i searched on google to convert to MeV which is 6.9661798e+21 , then I thought that one uranium 235 produce 200mev so to make that you would need around 3.5e+19...
  9. PupuWire

    Can copper be harvested from discarded phone wire?

    I have approximately 30 pounds of discarded phone wire. I would like to recycle the metals (copper?) within, but don't know if it is feasible or even worth attempting. I also just returned from helping a parent clean out the garage, including a retired aerospace engineer's vast collection of...
  10. S

    Compute the magnitude of the current density

    Homework Statement Copper and aluminum are being considered for a high‐voltage transmission line that must carry a current of 51.4 A. The resistance per unit length is to be 0.176 Ω/km. Compute the magnitude of the current density for an aluminum cable. Homework Equations R\quad =\quad \frac {...
  11. Stephanus

    Electron shell, Oxidation number

    Dear PF Forum, I think I have asked too many question for one day. I'm trying to understand antioxidant and free radicals. But, first I'd like to understand oxidation number. The oxidation number for hydrogen is +1 or -1. I can understand that. Either Hydrogen must lost one electron or gains one...
  12. C

    Nichrome and Copper Circuit w/ Electron Mobility

    Homework Statement In the circuit shown, two thick copper wires connect a 1.5 V battery to a Nichrome wire. Each copper wire has radius R = 0.009m and is L = 0.17m long. Copper has 8.4 \times 10^{28} mobile electrons/m^3 and an electron mobility of 4.4 \times 10^{-3}(m/s)/(V/m). The Nichrome...
  13. Hexnovae

    My copper electrodes are discoloring, and I'm not sure why

    For a high school school project I'm trying to build a device that will separate ions dissolved in water. I'm pumping water trough a box that has copper plates in it, and I'm putting that in a magnetic field. Because of Lorentz force the ions should bend off to different sides and heap up...
  14. M

    Cleaning copper connections for high precision instruments

    Hi all, Here's my first post with a question I've been trying to solve for a while. I work with electronic components of very high quality and we try to make all our connections using thin copper ribbons of various thickness. I have started cleaning my copper connections with a solution of...
  15. P

    Solenoid Problem

    Hey All, I'm trying to design a solenoid that would generate about minimum 1.6 A of current in order for me to charge up a 1.5 A 1.5 V battery. I already designed one which is about 10CM in lenght and unknown number of turns (as I used a drill to wind the coils around it. so I would guess its...
  16. P

    Need help in determining a source of error in an experiment

    Homework Statement It is known that the theoretical resistivity of copper is approximately: 2*10^-8 Ωm. But after I conducted an experiment to find the resistivity of copper, the results turned out to be: 1.68*10^-8Ωm. This is a very small error that can be easily dismissed due to "human...
  17. P

    How does corrosion affect the resistivity of copper wire?

    I'm not sure if corrosion does have a significant effect on copper in general but if it does, how and why does it happen, and the process of it happening and its effect on the overall resistivity? This is for a physics assignment...Please help if you can. Thank you
  18. W

    Electrical Conductivity of Copper, Gold And Silver

    Copper ::: 60.7 x 106 S m^-1 Silver :::62.9 x 106 S m^-1 Gold :: 48.8 x 106 S m^-1 Why is the electrical Conductivity of these elements this way? I mean down the periodic table it should increase in case of GOLD but instead Gold is have far less value of Electrical Conductivity.
  19. P

    How to dope a chemical compound?

    I am interested in creating phosphors for electroluminescent panels and from what I've read, one of the most common compounds is copper-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu). I've figured out how to create the zinc sulfide through a simple combustion synthesis reaction but it is the doping part that I...
  20. S

    Magnetic anode for copper cathode battery

    Hello everyone from the Physics Forums, I'm doing a school project and I'm looking for a potential anode alloy that is ferromagnetic which I could use with a copper cathode. I'm making a battery and I have to use copper as my cathode mainly because I have made the cathode cells structured...
  21. S

    Sulfur reaction with metals

    Dear all I have 250g of Copper 250g of Tin and 250g of Sulfur. Everything is in powdered form. Heated up in closed container wit surrounding nitrogen flow to avoid contact with Oxygen. Heating ramp is 3 hours to 1000K. What reaction will be the leading reaction? How to calculate how fast will...