In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial or fictitious force that acts on objects that are in motion within a frame of reference that rotates with respect to an inertial frame. In a reference frame with clockwise rotation, the force acts to the left of the motion of the object. In one with anticlockwise (or counterclockwise) rotation, the force acts to the right. Deflection of an object due to the Coriolis force is called the Coriolis effect. Though recognized previously by others, the mathematical expression for the Coriolis force appeared in an 1835 paper by French scientist Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis, in connection with the theory of water wheels. Early in the 20th century, the term Coriolis force began to be used in connection with meteorology.
Newton's laws of motion describe the motion of an object in an inertial (non-accelerating) frame of reference. When Newton's laws are transformed to a rotating frame of reference, the Coriolis and centrifugal accelerations appear. When applied to massive objects, the respective forces are proportional to the masses of them. The Coriolis force is proportional to the rotation rate and the centrifugal force is proportional to the square of the rotation rate. The Coriolis force acts in a direction perpendicular to the rotation axis and to the velocity of the body in the rotating frame and is proportional to the object's speed in the rotating frame (more precisely, to the component of its velocity that is perpendicular to the axis of rotation). The centrifugal force acts outwards in the radial direction and is proportional to the distance of the body from the axis of the rotating frame. These additional forces are termed inertial forces, fictitious forces or pseudo forces. By accounting for the rotation by addition of these fictitious forces, Newton's laws of motion can be applied to a rotating system as though it was an inertial system. They are correction factors which are not required in a non-rotating system.In popular (non-technical) usage of the term "Coriolis effect", the rotating reference frame implied is almost always the Earth. Because the Earth spins, Earth-bound observers need to account for the Coriolis force to correctly analyze the motion of objects. The Earth completes one rotation for each day/night cycle, so for motions of everyday objects the Coriolis force is usually quite small compared with other forces; its effects generally become noticeable only for motions occurring over large distances and long periods of time, such as large-scale movement of air in the atmosphere or water in the ocean; or where high precision is important, such as long-range artillery or missile trajectories. Such motions are constrained by the surface of the Earth, so only the horizontal component of the Coriolis force is generally important. This force causes moving objects on the surface of the Earth to be deflected to the right (with respect to the direction of travel) in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. The horizontal deflection effect is greater near the poles, since the effective rotation rate about a local vertical axis is largest there, and decreases to zero at the equator. Rather than flowing directly from areas of high pressure to low pressure, as they would in a non-rotating system, winds and currents tend to flow to the right of this direction north of the equator (anticlockwise) and to the left of this direction south of it (clockwise). This effect is responsible for the rotation and thus formation of cyclones (see Coriolis effects in meteorology).
For an intuitive explanation of the origin of the Coriolis force, consider an object, constrained to follow the Earth's surface and moving northward in the northern hemisphere. Viewed from outer space, the object does not appear to go due north, but has an eastward motion (it rotates around toward the right along with the surface of the Earth). The further north it travels, the smaller the "diameter of its parallel" (the minimum distance from the surface point to the axis of rotation, which is in a plane orthogonal to the axis), and so the slower the eastward motion of its surface. As the object moves north, to higher latitudes, it has a tendency to maintain the eastward speed it started with (rather than slowing down to match the reduced eastward speed of local objects on the Earth's surface), so it veers east (i.e. to the right of its initial motion).Though not obvious from this example, which considers northward motion, the horizontal deflection occurs equally for objects moving eastward or westward (or in any other direction). However, the theory that the effect determines the rotation of draining water in a typical size household bathtub, sink or toilet has been repeatedly disproven by modern-day scientists; the force is negligibly small compared to the many other influences on the rotation.
Source : JEE Advanced , Physics Sir JEE YT
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I searched but I couldn't find a final answer to this question. There are two opposite opinions, which one is correct?
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Hello!
So for a) I have done the following
m = 400t = 400000 kg
v = 300 km/h = 83,3 m/s
##\alpha## = 50 (degrees)
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$$ F = 2 \cdot m (v × \omega) $$
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My attempt:
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2)I...
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Summary: Robert Sungenis explains the sagnac effect
Robert Sungenis, a well-known proponent of geocentrism, has authored a https://gwwdvd.com/what-allows-the-sun-to-revolve-around-the-earth/ in which he tries to explain the Sagnac effect as a result of Coriolis force (p.16-17), which he thinks...
Hi all,
Consider a platform with angular velocity ##\omega##. A particle on top of it has a velocity with only ##\hat \theta## component (no radial ##\hat r## velocity). In this case, the inertial forces read:
$$
F_{in} = 2m\omega V_\theta \, \hat r + m \omega^2 r \, \hat r
$$
If ##V_\theta =...
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Hello all,
I understand there are four d'Alembert (fictitious) (non-inertial) forces:
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3. Linear
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The Coriolis potential last term of (42) is obtained by integration through r and R from last term of (40).
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Homework Equations
Equation (41) is wrong I think, L must be replaced by...
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Homework Statement
A body is thrown as shown in the picture (0°<x<90°). In what direction the body will the body move in relation to the point it was thrown from - east or west (assume the distance between the point the body was thrown from and the point it lands at is no more than a few...
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So here's what...
Dear all,
there is something bugging me for a while now, and it's about a favourite topic of confusion: the Coriolis-force!
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Homework Statement
Find the magnitude in g's of the Coriolis acceleration due to the Earth's rotation of a plane flying 600 mph due north over the location of latitude (37˚13'04"N), longitude (121˚50'39"W), at an elevation of 80 meters above mean sea level.
Homework Equations
aCor = 2Ω × vxy...
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I have mind boggling problem, trying to distinguish between Dynamic reaction versus Coriolis acceleration of thin hoop.
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The context for the question is in the attachments (pg1.png, pg2.png, pg3.png), so there is some reading involved. Although, it is a short and simple read if anything. The inquiry is in (inquiry.png).
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Homework Statement
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The problem:
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Hi all,
I was reviewing the Coriolis effect and I came across the attached explanatory image (from the Italian version of a book on physics by Cutnell, Johnson, Young and Stadler).
The idea is the following.
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Homework Statement
A plane is flying in latitude 25S to the west.
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and the same question but that he is flying to the west in 25N?
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
I'm not sure, but think that Coriolis...
Homework Statement
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Hello,
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I have a couple of questions that i thougth this group could help me with.
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Homework Statement
Let ## \mathbf{r} ## be the position of a point in a rigid body relative to some origin ##O##. Let ##\mathbf{R}## be the position of the centre of mass from that origin. ##\mathbf{r^{*}} = (\mathbf{r}-\mathbf{R})##. ## d\boldsymbol{\phi} ## is the infitesimal vector directed...
Hello,
I got a question about the coriolis force. It is probably super simple, but I am still not getting it:
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Homework Statement
Find the magnitude and direction of the Coriolis force on a racing car of mass 10 metric tons traveling due south at a speed of 400km/hr at a lattitude of 45 degrees north.
Homework Equations
F_{cor}=-2m\omega\times v
The Attempt at a Solution
\omega=2\pi/(24*3600 \quad...
This (photo) is a very typical example of conservation of angular momentum, but my trouble arrises from trying to prove that the difference of energy will have to correspond to work, by calculating the work done by you to alter the moment of inertia. I have spent a lot of time in this, but I...
Imagine there is a frictionless disk that spins with angular speed w. There is a ball on it that sits motionless at some radius r from the center. Now, switch to the frame of the rotating disk. In this frame the ball should be spinning with speed w * r. Edit: To be clear, the ball is NOT moving...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/1a061d2667e5d9f69dc385e359e7260a3eb1deff
https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/ba88069934aa8abb2a2466f84121f385e6e8971f
The Attempt at a Solution
I have solved equation for r(t) and...
If Earth was turned into an air-hockey planet, with no friction (or air friction), and I was in New York and I shoved an air hockey puck North, would the hockey puck trace out the same sinusoidal-type path that a satellite/space station does (spending an equal amount of time in the northern and...
Homework Statement
A fast sprinter with a mass of 80 kg runs across the equator. What is the value of the Coriolis force he experiences?
Homework Equations
F=ma
a=2ωVradial
ω=7.27 x10-5 rads-1
Earth rotates from west to east.
The Attempt at a Solution
I pick a direction of travel - South to...