electro static Definition and Topics - 33 Discussions

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials, such as amber, attract lightweight particles after rubbing. The Greek word for amber, ήλεκτρον, or electron, was thus the source of the word 'electricity'. Electrostatic phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such forces are described by Coulomb's law.
Even though electrostatically induced forces seem to be rather weak, some electrostatic forces such as the one between an electron and a proton, that together make up a hydrogen atom, is about 36 orders of magnitude stronger than the gravitational force acting between them.
There are many examples of electrostatic phenomena, from those as simple as the attraction of the plastic wrap to one's hand after it is removed from a package to the apparently spontaneous explosion of grain silos, the damage of electronic components during manufacturing, and photocopier & laser printer operation. Electrostatics involves the buildup of charge on the surface of objects due to contact with other surfaces. Although charge exchange happens whenever any two surfaces contact and separate, the effects of charge exchange are usually only noticed when at least one of the surfaces has a high resistance to electrical flow. This is because the charges that transfer are trapped there for a time long enough for their effects to be observed. These charges then remain on the object until they either bleed off to ground or are quickly neutralized by a discharge: e.g., the familiar phenomenon of a static "shock" is caused by the neutralization of charge built up in the body from contact with insulated surfaces.

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  1. rudransh verma

    B Field confusion in conductors

    If there is a spherical conductor like this with excess charges on its surface then this is the field it sets up. Each e- would have there own radial field of lines. And all the e-s would exert a force on each charge and the net field on each charge and thus net force would be zero. All the e-s...
  2. bboo123

    I Application of an external electric field causes an increase of D in a dielectric?

    In the 7th edition of the book "Elements of Electromagnetics by Matthew N. O. Sadiku" On page 190 the author goes on to say: "We now consider the case in which the dielectric region contains free charge. If ##\rho_v## is the volume density of free charge, the total volume charge density...
  3. rudransh verma

    I Problem with electric flux

    Gauss law relates between E at some point on guassian surface with the net charge enclosed by that surface. Using gauss law is like being able to tell what (ie charge)is inside a gift box by just looking at the wrapper(electric field). There are two types of problem. Sometimes we know the charge...
  4. jiajie

    Finding the capacitance of two separated hemispheres

    like the picture, two adjacent hemispheres(radius R, distance d, assume the charge is ±Q of each side(assume evenly distributed), can we calculate its capacitance?
  5. Narayanan KR

    At least One Faraday Tube Between Every Two Unlike Charges in the Universe

    By Classic Coulomb's Law there exists negligible yet non zero force of attraction between two unlike charges in-spite of the distance. However for electrostatic attraction to work we need at-least one Faraday Tube(Lines of Forces) between the attracting charges, does that means...
  6. Z

    Boundary Value and Separation of Variables.

    If the boundary condition is not provided in the form of electric potential, how do we solve such problem? In this case, I wanna use ##V = - \int \vec{E} \cdot{d\vec{l}}##, but I don't know how to choose an appropriate reference point.
  7. Z

    Question about the classic Image Problem

    I am studying the classic image problem (griffins, p. 124) Suppose a point charge ##q## is held a distance ##d## above an infinite grounded conducting plane. Question: What is the potential in the region above the plane? boundary conditions: 1. V = 0 when z = 0 (since the conducting plane is...
  8. Data Base Erased

    Electrostatic energy of concentric shells

    I know the energy is ##\frac{q²}{ 8 \pi \epsilon_{0}}( \frac{1}{a} - \frac{1}{b})##, but I can't get this result using the second equation. What I did: ##W = \frac{1}{2} \int \rho V d \tau ## ##\rho = \frac{q}{ \frac{4}{3} \pi r³}, a < r < b ## ##V = \frac{q}{4 \pi \epsilon_{0} r}## ## W =...
  9. O

    How to create a uniformly charged sphere?

    Can we create at least any one of the following in laboratory? How? 1. A uniformly charged spherical shell of finite thickness 2. A uniformly charged sphere 3. A radially symmetrically charged spherical shell of finite thickness 4. A radially symmetrically charged sphere
  10. Z

    Electric field direction on a grounded conducting sphere

    I am required to find the direction of the electric field on the surface of a grounded conducting sphere in the proximity of a point charge ##+q##. The distance between the center of the sphere and the point charge is ##d## and using the method of images we find that the charge of the sphere is...
  11. torito_verdejo

    Electrostatics: sign of the potential

    The final result will only differ in its sign, but this is crucial. Having a positively, radially oriented electric field ##\textbf{E}##, I understand that the sign of the integral should be positive (## - (- A) = A##), but it is not! How and why is this the case? A line integral where the...
  12. navneet9431

    Electrostatic Shielding

    What is true is that the field due to the point charge outside of the conductor will not be able to penetrate the shell i.e. there will be no field due to the external point charge anywhere within the conductor nor in the cavity: the field will be **killed off*& by the charges on the outer...
  13. Hawkingo

    Why there is a negative sign in the formula of calculating work done?

    $$W = - \int _ { a } ^ { b } \vec { F } \cdot d \vec { r }$$ ( The Force here is referring to the applied force, When moving a positive charge towards another positive charge(stationary) / field In this formula why there is a negative sign in the formula? I am not asking the sign of the total...
  14. Mutatis

    Find the electric field at an arbitrary point

    Homework Statement A distribution of charge with spherical symmetry has volumetric density given by: $$ \rho(r) = \rho_0 e^{ \frac {-r} {a} }, \left( 0 \leq r < \infty \right); $$ where ##\rho_0## and ##a## is constant. a) Find the total charge b) Find ##\vec E## in an arbitrary point...
  15. C

    Floating potential of a conductor in an electrical field

    I'm interested in the following general question: Assume x,y,z is an axes system, and that the y-z plane is occupied by a conductive plate at a known potential V with respect to the earth. Now, a conductive material M of neutral global electrical charge is placed at some distance of the plate...
  16. A

    Confusion with constant voltage and dielectric

    Homework Statement Consider a conducting sphere with radius ##R## connected to a voltage source of ##V_0## volts. If the sphere is then covered by a dielectric spherical layer of radius ##9R## calculated the relative permitivitty ##\varepsilon_0## needed so that the field in the empty zone...
  17. Manolisjam

    Non-conductve sphere with cavity -- find Electric field

    I have a non conducting sphere with a charge ρ=A/r per uni vollume A is constant. suppose there is a cavity in the centre and within a particle of charge q. i want to find the E inside the sphere in respect with r. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution for radius equal of the cavity i...
  18. L

    Three parallel plates -- find the electric field

    Homework Statement Find the field at A. Homework Equations ##\oint E\cdot dA = Q_{enclosed}/\epsilon_0## The Attempt at a Solution My first intuition was to do a Gaussian cylinder from A to the middle of the bottom plate. My logic is that the field inside the bottom plate is 0, so I'd have...
  19. Marcus95

    Finding Total Charge from E-field

    Homework Statement A static charge distribution has a radial electric field of magnitude ##E = \alpha \frac{e^{-\lambda r}}{r} ## where λ and α are positive constants. Calculate the total charge of the distribution. Homework Equations Gauss's law ##Q/\epsilon_0 = \int \vec{E} \cdot d\vec{S}##...
  20. Alettix

    Capacitor filled with two conducting materials

    Homework Statement a) State the boundary conditions for the electric field strength E and electric flux density D at a planar interface separating two media with dielectric constants ε1 and ε2. b) A parallel plate capacitor with a plate separation d is filled with two layers of different...
  21. VSayantan

    Electrostatics, Neutral Points

    Statement Four point charges, Q, -Q, Q, -Q, are placed at the four ends of a horizontal square of side a as shown in the figure above. What are the neutral points? The attempt at a solution The square is not exactly aligned parallel in its plane, say XY. So, the center is not a neutral...
  22. G

    Electric field due to semi-circular wire at a distance

    Homework Statement A semi-circular wire containing a total charge Q which is uniformly distribute over the wire in the x-y plane. the semi-circle has a radius a and the origin is the center of the circle. Now I want to calculate the electric field at a point located on at distance h on the...
  23. S

    Correction to the field energy due to the existence of discrete charges

    In the classical electromagnetic field theory, the field density of energy is given by: $$u = (\epsilon/2)E^2 + (\mu/2)H^2$$ One of the differences between the classical electromagnetic theory and the real world is that in classical EM all charge and current density, (ρ(r), J(r)), is...
  24. Turbotanten

    Find the ionization energy of a simple model atom

    1. Homework Statement A simple model atom is composed of a point-like nucleus with charge ##+Q## and an electron charge distribution $$ \rho(\vec{r})=-\dfrac{\left|Q\right|}{\pi a^2 r}exp(-2r/a) $$ where ##a## is a constant. Show that the ionization energy (the energy to remove the electron to...
  25. Marcus95

    Change in electrostatic energy on two spheres

    Homework Statement We have a spehere of radius ##r_1## and on of ##r_2## far away from each other. The first sphere has a charge ##Q##. What is the change in electro static energy when they are connected together? Homework Equations Potential of a charged sphere: ## V = \frac{Q}{4\pi\epsilon_0...
  26. NicolasPan

    Find the electric field of a uniformly polarized sphere

    Homework Statement We want to calculate the field of a uniformly polarized sphere of radius=R Homework Equations V(\vec{r}) = \frac{1}{4 \pi\epsilon_{0}} \oint_{S} \frac{\sigma_{b}}{r} da' + \int_{V} \frac{\rho_{b}}{r} d\tau' The Attempt at a Solution i)I know that \sigma_{b} = P...
  27. Narayanan KR

    Capacitance with Earth?

    1. In above image an insulated metal plate has been placed inside earth (soil), and an voltage is applied between plate and earth groung what will be the capacitance here?? 2. one plate is the metal and the other plate is entire earth, so it is a big assymetrical Capacitor or What? all...
  28. V

    A Problem In Electromagnetic Phenomena

    Homework Statement [/B] In a thin rectangular metallic strip a constant current I flows along the positive x-direction, as shown in the figure. The length, width and thickness of the strip are l,w and d, respectively. A uniform magnetic field B is applied on the strip along the positive...
  29. A

    Heat energy from a charged configuration

    Homework Statement [/B] I have two spherical metallic shells with radius ##3a## and ##a##, the little one is placed inside the larger so that the center of the little one is at a distance of ##a## from the center of the larger. The outer one has a charge ##3Q## and the one inside has a charge...
  30. annoyingdude666

    Why infinite conducting rod - Gauss's Law , uses lambda?

    hi, i still don't understand why infinite thin-walled cylindrical shell or conducting rod use lambda rather than sigma ? lambda = C/m ,,, sigma = C/m^2 i mean when we look at conducting rod, the charges inside the conductor is zero, so the charges spread on the surface of conducting rod(have...
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